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Cell Structures & Functions
Terms in this set (60)
the basic unit of structure and function of living things
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
microscopic single-celled organisms with no nucleus or organelles. DNA is suspended in cytoplasm.
cells with a nucleus and organelles. DNA is enclosed in the nucleus. they can be multi-cellular or single-celled organisms
English scientist who idenitfied and named cells. he examined thin slices of cork and saw dead plant cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
developed better lens and was the first scientist to examine live cells in pond water
studied plant tissues and concluded that all plants are made of cells.
studied both plant and animal cells and concluded all living things are made of cells.
concluded all cells come from existing cells
before (indicating before nucleus, so no nucleus)
a jelly like substance in the cell that contains all the organelles
"organs" of the cell that carry out specific functions to let the cell survive
the storehouse for most of your DNA ( the brain of the cell)
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A system of membranes, in a cell's cytoplasm, that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids (fats).
tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins.
consists of closely layered stacks of membrane-bound spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins usually from the ER.
general name used to describe small membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place to place within the cells.(transport vehicles)
supplies energy to the cell, site of cellular respiration
fluid filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by cell.
vesicle containing digestive enzymes; organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
a hard rigid structure that gives the plant cell it's shape., A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
organelle, found in the cells of plants and other autotrophs in which photosynthesis takes place
a whip-like structure that allows a cell to move
hair-like structures that let the cell move
Group of unicellular microorganisms that lack a nucleus and most membrane-bound organelles; have a cell wall, a cell membrane, and ribosomes.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms, such as plants.
Complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods.
A membrane that envelopes the nucleus,separating it from the cytoplasm, controlling what enters / exits the nucleus ; present in eukaryotes.
A thin flexible barrier surrounding a cell; found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes; controls what enters / exits a cell.
A complex molecule inside the nucleus that contains the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio
Ratio of a cell surface area to its volume. Greater surface area than volume is ideal for survival. Volume grows faster than surface area.
A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.
Material (DNA) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm of a cell that determines the cell's structure and function.
Molecules made by connecting amino acids via peptide bonds. Proteins are synthesized (put together) by ribosomes, and function as enzymes, carriers, structrual fibers, cell surface receptors, channels, , hormones, etc.
A process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches.
All the chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
The maintenance of a stable internal environment by an organism. Example: body temperature
Biology - any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus.
A change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react.
an action in a reverse direction or manner.
enclosed by a membrane and separated from cytoplasm
single (one) cell
Two or more atoms bonded together, representing the smallest basic unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
A specialized structure in the nucleus active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
An instrument with lenses and light that is used to observe objects too small to be visible with only the eyes.
A hand-held lens that magnifies, or enlarges, an object.
Compounds made up of molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that function as the main source of energy in plant and animal cells. (e.g., sugars, starches, and cellulose)
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; are insoluble in water, serve as a source of stored energy, and are a component of cell membranes.
A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
same, constant, or unchanged
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