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3 points of Leverage for Managers for Maximizing Productivity

1. who you select (recruiting-selection)
2. how well you impart job knowledge (training performance feedback)
3. how well you incent people to do what you want them to do.

Training (common misconception)

"an act of faith" = it always works


planned programs designed to improve performance, on the current job at the individual, group and organization level. implies measurable changes in KSA's and or social behavior


learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. peparation for future jobs.

Development (skill specification)

nonspecific towards a specific skill

Training Trends

time and money budgeted for training will increase

Organizational Training Responsibility

provide atmosphere that will support/encourage change

Individual Training Responsibility

derive maximum benefit from learning opportunities provided

Retraining (efficiency?)

more cost effective than firing

Why So Much Time & $ Spent on Training?

too many unskilled/uneducated youth for entry level jobs, more sophisticated technical systems, need to train underutilized groups-racial and ethnic

Training should be:

part of corporate culture, tied to business strategy, comprehensive


how well a person can aquire the skills, knowledge and behavior necessary to perform a job. ability x motivation


percent of payroll designated to training and development expense

Learning Management System (LMS)

computer application that automates the administration, development and delivery of training programs

Benefits to LMS

increase availability and decease costs of training

Needs Assessment

the process of evaluating the organization, individual employees and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training are necessary

Organization Analysis

where is training needed?

What Does Person Analysis Answer?

do performance deficiencies result from lack of knowledge, skills or ability? who needs training? Are these employees willing and able to learn?

Task (Job) Analysis

what should be taught?

Current Skill Levels of US Workforce

lacking basic skills

Situational Constraints

limits on trainings effectiveness that arise from the situation or conditions within the organization

Training Administration

responsibility of HR professional, program of sending employees to outside training programs

Classroom Instruction

good for presenting info on a specific topic to many trainees (fast and cheap). trainer lecturing group.

Audiovisual Training

doesn't require trainees to attend a class. consistent presentation, not affected by an individual trainer's goals and kills. Sometimes tries to present too much info.

Computer Based Training

participants receive course materials and instruction distributed over the internet or on a CD-Rom (cheap, easy to customize, deliverable in small doses)


receiving training via the internet (Electronic Performance Support Systems)

On-The-Job Training

person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace. apprenticeship and internships


represent a real-life situation. expensive, need constant updating. worth it if risks of mistake on the job are great.

Behavior Modeling

participants observe other people demonstrating the desired behavior, then have the opportunity to practice it themselves

Coordination Training

trains team how to share info and decisions to obtain the best team performance

Effective Training

1. clear
2. high transfer
3. physically carrying out desired behaviors
4. feedback
5. measurable performance standards

Transfer of Training

on the job use of knowledge, skills and behaviors learned in training. requires employees to actually learn the content of the training program.

Orientation of New Employees

prepares employees to perform their jobs effectively, learn about their organization and establish work relationships

Diversity Training (purpose)

designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and develop skills needed to work with a diverse workforce

Benefits of Diversity Training

allows all employees to contribute to org. goals and experience personal growth

3 Areas New Employee Orientation Must Address

1. company standards, norms, traditions
2. social behavior, work climate
3. technical aspects of job

Affitmative Action Training Plans

specify training goals for minorities and women

Qualifying Training

initial preparation of individuals to enter workforce

Skills Improvement Training

training employed workers to upgrade skills


preparing for new careers for those displaced from jobs

Second-Chance Training

help become self sufficient, job skills training, social services

3 Phases of Training

1. Needs Assessment
2. Development of Program
3. Evaluation

Consequences of Poor Transfer of Training

cost of useless training and cost of hampered performance

Skill Learning

goal setting, behavior modeling, practice, feedback. increases training effectiveness

Factual Learning

goal setting, meaningfulness of material, practice, feedback.increases training effectiveness

Evaluating Training Programs: Internal Criteria

measure outcomes of training program (reaction of participants, to what extent did trainees learn?)

Evaluating Training Programs: External Criteria

measure impact of training on job environment. behavior (what on the job changes have occurred?), results (what cost-related outcomes have resulted from training?)


combination of OJT and classroom training. get paid while learning and hands on experience.

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