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Terms in this set (24)
Know the definition of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
It is a system of visceral motor neurons (part of the PNS) that innervate visceral effectors- cardiac m, smooth m and the glands of the body.
Be able to contrast the ANS and somatic nervous system effectors
Somatic Nervous System- effectors: skeletal m
ANS- effectors: cardiac m, smooth m, gland
Be able to contrast the ANS and somatic nervous system efferent pathways
Somatic Nervous System efferent pathway: one somatic motor neuron whose axon is heavily myelinated
ANS two neurons- preganglionic neuron whose axon (called the preganglionic axon) is lightly myelinated and ganglionic neuron (Marieb calls it "postganglionic" neuron) whose axon (called postganglionic axon) is unmyelinated
Be able to contrast the ANS and somatic nervous system neurotransmitter
Somatic Nervous System neurotransmitter: ACh which is always excitatory at the motor end plate.
neurotransmitters: All preganglionic axons in the ANS (both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic) release ACh which is excitatory
Be able to contrast the ANS and somatic nervous system response of effectors to neurotransmitters
Parasympathetic Div of the ANS release ACh which is excitatory or inhibitory while MOST postganglionic axons in the Sympathetic Div release NE (norepinephrine) which is excitatory or inhibitory but the postganglionic axons in the Sympathetic Div that innervate visceral effectors in the body wall release ACh which is inhibitory or excitatory.
Describe some major effects mediated by the parasympathetic of ANS
Parasympathetic Division- "resting and digesting" division, promotes normal housekeeping functions ex. Resting heart rate, resting bp, resting resp rate, constriction of pupils, accommodation of the lens in eye for focusing "up close", promotes salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion
Describe some major effects mediated by the sympathetic divisions of the ANS
Sympathetic Division- "fight or flight" division, promotes increased hr and increased force of heart contraction, increased bp, increased rr, promotes sweating, dilates pupils, inhibits salivation and digestion, shunts blood to working skeletal mm, heart and brain
Contrast and describe the origin of the preganglionic neurons
Parasympathetic Division- preganglionic neurons originate in Brain Stem nuclei and S2-S4 cord segs
the lengths of the preganglionic and postganglionic fibers
preganglionic axons are very long and extend to effector organ so postganglionic axons are very short
What is ganglia
ganglia are either intramural ganglia ( in wall of effector organ) or terminal ganglia ( adjacent to organ served)
ganglia (locations, types) in the sympathetic
Sympathetic Division- preganglionic neurons lateral horns of spinal cord segments L1- T2; preganglionic axons are short and postganglionic axons are long; ganglia are close to spinal cord, either chain or paravertebral ganglia in sympathetic trunk or collateral or prevertebral ganglia in aortic plexus in abdominopelvic cavity
ganglia (locations, types) in the Parasympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Division- preganglionic neurons originate in Brain Stem nuclei and S2-S4 cord segs; preganglionic axons are very long and extend to effector organ so postganglionic axons are very short; ganglia are either intramural ganglia ( in wall of effector organ) or terminal ganglia ( adjacent to organ served)
Describe the sympathetic trunk- location, ganglia, etc.
Sympathetic trunk extends from the neck to pelvic cavity on each side of vertebral column (it's paired). It consists of preganglionic sympathetic fibers and approximately 23 chain or paravertebral ganglia.
List the visceral effectors in the somatic part of body
The visceral effectors in the somatic part of body (i.e. body wall) include sweat glands in the skin, arrector pili mm in the skin, smooth muscle in the blood vessels of the skin and skeletal mm.
describe how they receive sympathetic innervations
These visceral effectors receive sympathetic innervation by way of postganglionic fibers that were transported by some cranial nerves and the spinal nerves. The cell bodies of the ganglionic neurons that innervate these effectors are located in the chain or paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.
Describe the neurotransmitters in the ANS
All preganglionic axons in the ANS (both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic) release ACh which is excitatory
All postganglionic axons in the Parasympathetic Div of the ANS release ACh which is excitatory or inhibitory
which fibers in the ANS release which neurotransmitter
MOST postganglionic axons in the Sympathetic Div release NE (norepinephrine) which is excitatory or inhibitory
The postganglionic axons in the Sympathetic Div that innervate visceral effectors in the body wall release ACh which is inhibitory or excitatory.
Define cholinergic fibers
Cholinergic fibers release ACh
define adrenergic fibers
adrenergic fibers release Norepinephrine NE
Define cholinergic receptors
Cholinergic receptors bind ACh
define adrenergic receptors
adrenergic receptors bind NE and epinephrine (released from the adrenal medulla)
Describe the two types of cholinergic receptors that is nicotinic where they are located in the ANS
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors bind ACh and the ACh is always excitatory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located on the motor end plate at the NMJ, on all ganglionic neurons in both the Sympathetic Division and Parasympathetic Division and on the cells of the adrenal medulla.
Describe the two types of cholinergic receptors that is muscarinic where they are located in the ANS
Muscarinic cholinergic receptors bind ACH and the ACh may be excitatory or inhibitory. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors are located on all effector cells stimulated by postganglionic parasympathetic axons as well as on the visceral effectors stimulated by postganglionic sympathetic axons.
Describe the different types of adrenergic receptors
Adrenergic receptors are classified as alpha or beta, with several types of subclasses.
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