Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
HD Quiz 14 Oncology: Staging Cancer (Set V)
HD Quiz 14: Oncology: Staging Cancer
Terms in this set (49)
The severity of a person's cancer based on the size and extent of the original primary tumor and whether or not cancer has spread in the body.
Staging is important for several reasons, staging helps the doctor:
•Plan the appropriate treatment.
Staging is important for several reasons, staging can be used to:
•Estimate a person's prognosis.
Staging is important for several reasons, knowing the stage of cancer is important in:
•Identifying clinical trials that may be a suitable treatment option for a patient.
Staging is important for several reasons, staging helps health care providers and researchers:
•Exchange information about patients; it also gives them a common terminology for evaluating the results of clinical trials.
The types of tests used for staging depend on:
The type of cancer.
Many of the same tests that are used to:
Diagnose a cancer are also used to determine the stage of a cancer.
Tests used to diagnose a cancer often include the following:
•Imaging tests, including x-ray, CT, MRI, and PET scans
•Lab tests of blood, urine, other fluids, and tissues taken from the body.
Testing for tissues taken from the body can include:
Measurement of certain tumor markers.
Pathology reports and surgical reports contain info about the patient's cancer that is useful in:
Determining the cancer stage.
Staging systems for cancer have evolved over time. Some staging systems cover many types of cancer:
others focus on a particular type.
The TNM (Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis) system is:
one of the most widely used cancer staging systems.
one of the most widely used cancer staging systems:
Most medical facilities use the TNM system as their:
Main method for cancer reporting.
The TNM system is based on:
The size and/or extent of the primary tumor (T), the amount of spread to nearby lymph nodes (N), and the presence of metastases (M) or secondary tumors formed by the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.
The 'T' in TNM is based on:
The size or extent of the primary tumor
The 'N' in TNM is based on:
The amount of cells spread to nearby lymph nodes (N)
The 'M' in TNM is based on:
The presence of metastases (M) or secondary tumors formed by the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.
In the TNM (Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis) system, a number is added to each letter to indicate:
The size and/or extent of the primary tumor and the degree of cancer spread.
For example, breast cancer classified as T3 N2 M0 refers to:
A large tumor that has spread outside the breast to nearby lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.
Prostate cancer T2 N0 M0 means that:
The tumor is located only in the prostate and has not spread to the lymph nodes or any other part of the body.
Most types of cancer have TNM _____________, but some do not.
For example, cancers of the brain and spinal cord are staged according to:
Their cell type and grade
A system commonly used to stage lymphomas:
The Ann Arbor Staging Classification system
Another staging system used to stage cancers of the female reproductive tract is developed by:
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)
Most childhood cancers are staged using either the:
TNM system, or the staging criteria of the Children's Oncology Group (COG), which conducts pediatric clinical trials.
The description of a tumor based on how abnormal the tumor cells and tissue look under a microscope.
Tumor grade is an indicator of:
How quickly a tumor is likely to grow and spread.
When is a tumor called "well-differentiated"?
If the cells of the tumor and the organization of the tumor's tissue are close to those of normal cells and tissue.
Well differentiated tumors tend to:
Grow and spread at a slower rate than tumors that are "undifferentiated" or "poorly differentiated," which have abnormal-looking cells and lack normal tissue structure.
Based on tumors that are "undifferentiated" or "poorly differentiated," which have abnormal-looking cells, and other differences in microscopic appearance doctors:
Assign a numerical "grade" to most cancers.
A tumor grade is not the same as:
The stage of a cancer.
If a tumor is suspected to be malignant:
A doctor removes all or part of it during a biopsy.
After a doctor removes all or part of a suspected malignant tumor, a pathologist then:
Examines the biopsied tissue to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant.
The pathologist also determines a tumor's:
Grade and identifies other characteristics of the tumor.
Grading systems differ depending on:
The type of cancer
In general, tumors are graded as:
1, 2, 3, or 4, depending on the amount of abnormality.
In Grade 1 tumors:
The tumor cells and the organization of the tumor tissue appear close to normal.
Grade 1 tumors tend to:
Grow and spread slowly.
The cells and tissue of Grade 3 and Grade 4 tumors do not:
Look like normal cells and tissue.
Grade 3 and Grade 4 tumors tend to grow:
Rapidly and spread faster than tumors with a lower grade.
The following system is generally used for GX:
•Grade cannot be assessed (undetermined grade)
The following system is generally used for G1:
The following system is generally used for G2:
•Moderately differentiated (intermediate grade)
The following system is generally used for G3:
•Poorly differentiated (high grade)
The following system is generally used for G4:
•Undifferentiated (high grade)
Cancers with their own grading system:
Breast and prostate cancer.
The Nottingham grading system is most often used for:
For prostate cancer, the _______ scoring system is most often used:
Sets found in the same folder
HD: Endocrinology key terms (Set III)
HD: Endocrinology Imaging Procedures (Set IV)
HD Class 10: Orthopedics key terms
HD: Endocrinology Lab Tests & Surg procedures (Set…
Sets with similar terms
Cancer Basic Terms
Other sets by this creator
Prof Review Guide: VI. Medical Billing and Reimbur…
Prof Review Guide: Classification Systems and Seco…
Prof Review Guide: Information Retention and Acces…
Prof Review Guide: Information Retention and Access
Other Quizlet sets
RT 214 Ch 1
EBP exam 3 outcomes
Counseling Theories Exam II Questions
psyc test 3