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The Chemistry of Life
Terms in this set (40)
Why is chemistry necessary?
It is used to understand the chemical reactions that occur in the human body.
What is biochemistry?
The study of chemical processes in living things
What is matter made of?
What 4 elements make up 96% of your body?
What are elements made of?
What are the 3 major subatomic particles?
neutrons (neutral/no charge)
The atomic # states the number of _ and _.
T or F: Atoms are particles that contain charges.
F: Atoms hold no charge
Where are protons and neutrons located?
In the nucleus.
Where are electrons located?
They orbit around the nucleus.
What are valence electrons?
The outermost electrons around the nucleus; atoms strive to have a complete set of 8, in exception to helium and hydrogen, in which they strive for a set of 2.
How do atoms obtain a set of 8 valence electrons?
They are either shared or transferred between 2 atoms.
How do chemical bonds form?
They form through the force of attraction between atoms (the stronger the attraction, the stronger the bond).
What kind of bond forms when valence electrons are transferred due to opposite attractions?
What kind of bond forms when valence electrons are shared between atoms due to physical sharing of electrons?
Distinguish the difference between single bonds, double bonds, and triple bonds.
Single bonds share a single pair of electrons
Double bonds share 2 pairs
Triple bonds share 3 pairs
When atoms, ions, and molecules interact, this is a form of what?
A chemical reaction.
What is stored in bonds?
The large macromolecules consumed in our food are broken down into __ to release energy for our daily routines.
All life is made up of 4 main building blocks called macromolecules. What are they?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
*What is a polymer?
A large molecule made up of many smaller repeating subunits called monomers, which are linked together. [MONOMER=subunit of//POLYMER=chain of]
Why are carbohydrates the first choice of energy for the body?
B/c they are the easiest to break down.
What is done to the energy stored in carbs?
It is captured and transferred to another molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the ACTUAL source of energy for all cell processes (communication, growth, reproduction, repair, etc.).
What are carbohydrates made of?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and simple sugars that are composed on a single monomer (monosaccharides).
What is a disaccharide?
A carbohydrate formed when 2 monosacharrides are linked together. (mono+mono=di)
What is glucose?
The primer building block for many essential complex carbohydrates; also a common sweetener for foods.
What is fructose?
A simple sugar found in many fruits.
What is deoxyribose?
The sugar molecule used to form DNA.
What is ribose?
The sugar molecule used to form RNA.
What is sucrose?
Glucose linked to fructose; a common table sugar.
What is maltose?
2 linked glucose molecules; sugar used to make malted candy
What is lactose?
Glucose linked to galactose (sugar found in galactose).
What is a polysacharride?
A carbohydrate created when 3 or more monosacharrides are linked together (can contain 100+ sugar units bonded together).
How do animals and humans form glycogen?
By combining multiple glucose molecules obtained from food.
Where and why is glycogen stored?
It is stored in the liver and muscle tissue for when the body needs it as an energy source.
What is the importance of proteins?
They are the primary structural component of the body and are responsible for BUILDING, MAINTAINING, AND REPAIRING the tissues in the body.
Name 5 specific purposes proteins have in the body.
-are structural components
-are signal/communication molecules
-are enzymes (acts as a catalyst to spark biochemical reactions)
*What are proteins composed of?
*What are amino acids composed of?
-Amine group (NH2)
-Carboxyl group (COOH)
-Variable group (R group)
What type of bond holds amino acids?
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