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AP Bio Chapter 3 Term quiz
Terms in this set (67)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that
releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed.
This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in the cell.
A coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains).
An organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group.
Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1+
referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
(they run in opposite 5'-3' directions)
beta pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
(not the side chains)
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
a chemical group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
A chemical group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
A chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by B glycosidic linkages
A protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins.
A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods
a sterioid that forms an essential compondent of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biolgically important stereoids sucha s many hormones
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
In proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming biologically inactive; in DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.
Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, or temperature
The sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA nucleotides
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous base adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine; capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of cell's proteins
A double sugar consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a dehydration reaction
A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most enzymes are proteins.
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or triglyceride.
A carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a triacylglycerol or triglyceride
a specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
An organic molecule consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
A chemical reaction that breaks a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers
a type of weak chemical interaction caused when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude water
A chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom.
Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms.
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O.
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells.
The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a dehydration reaction.
A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms; important in energy transfer.
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain; nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
A polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a six-membered ring. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
The sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
Regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone (not the side chains).
sickle cell disease
A recessively inherited human blood disorder in which a single nucleotide change in the beta-globin gene causes hemoglobin to aggregate, changing red blood cell shape and causing multiple symptoms in afflicted individuals.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached
A chemical group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom.
The overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
An unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds.
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride.
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
The bonding capacity of a given atom; usually equals the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom's outermost (valence) shell.
A technique used to study the three-dimensional structure of molecules. It depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule.
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