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SGU histology respiratory system

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What is the respiratory system made up of
nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea and lungs (air conduction and gas exchange regions)
What are the functions of the respiratory system
gas exchange, cooling, chemoreception
Out of the functions of the respiratory system, which is the most important
gas exchange
What is gas exchange secondarily involved with
acid-based balance base balance
how is cooling accomplished
evaporative water loss
In which animals is cooling especially important
birds
What else is important about cooling
control of water loss
What are the 3 regoins of the nasal cavity
cutaneous region, respiratory region, olfactory region
Rostrally, the cutaneous region (nasal vestibule) is lined by what type of epithelium
stratified sqquamous keratinized epithelium
Describe the epithelium at mid-vestibule in the cuntaneous region of the nasal cavity
thinner and non-keratinized
Caudally, the transitional zone (of the cutaneous region of the nasal cavity) is lined by what type of epithelium
stratified cuboidal or nonciliated pseudostratified epithelium
The propria submucosa of the cutaneous region of teh nasal cavity is rich in what
blood vessels, nerves, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages
Describe the nasal diverticulum in horses
its lined by integument containing hairs, sebaceous and sweat glands
What region of the nasal cavity is the respiratory region
the caudal 2/3
The epithelium of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity is lined by what
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epitheliun having 4 types of cells
What are the 4 types of cells found in the epithelium of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity
ciliated cells, secretory cells, brush cells, basal cells
Which cells have motile cilia or numerous microvilli
ciliated cells
Which cells are serous or mucous (goblet cells)
secretory cells
Which cells have thick microvilli associated with sensory receptors
brush cells
The propria submucosa of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity is highly vascular (CAVERNOUS STRATUM) containing what
serous or mixed nasal glands, numerous nerves, and lymphatic nodules
What region of the nasal cavity is the olfactory region
the dorsocaudal portion
The olfactory region of the nasal cavity has what type of labyrinth
ethmoidal
Describe the epithelium of the olfactory region of the nasal cavity
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium having 3 types of cells
What are the 3 types of cells found in the epithelium if the olfactory region
neurosensory olfactory cells, sustentacular cells, basal cells
Describe the neurosensory olfactory cells
bipolar cells (neurons) with dendrites extending to the lumen and axons reaching the olfactory bulb of the brain
Describe sestentacular cells
they are columnar cells
What glands are present in the propria submucosa of the olfactory regoin of the nasal cavity
mixed olfactory glands
What is the vomeronasal organ
a paired duct, located on either side of the base of the nasal septum
What does the vomeronasal organ open into
incisive duct
Describe the shape of the vomeronasal organ
cresent-shaped with a medial concave and lateral convex mucosa
What type of epithelium is found in the vomeronasal organ
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What type of cells are found in the medial epithelium of the vomeronasal organ
neurosensory, sustentacular and basal cells
What types of cells are found in the lateral epithelium of the vomeronasal organ
ciliated and nonciliated columnar, goblet and basal cells
What does the propria submucosa of the vomeronasal organ contain
vomeronasal glands (mucous or mixed) and vomeronasal cartilage (hyaline), enclosing the organ
What is the function of the vomeronasal organ
sexual behavior by detection of odor of opposite sex
what type of epithelium is found in the nasopharynx
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
What type of cells are found in the epithelium of the nasopharynx
goblet
What is the propria submucosa of the nasopharynx composed of
loose CT containing glands
What are prominant in the dorsal portion of the nasopharynx
lymphatic nodules
What do the lymphatic nodules of the nasopharynx aggregate as
pharyngeal tonsil
What type of epithelium lines the laryngeal mucosa
stratified squamous non-ketatinized epithelium
Caudal to the vocal fold, the laryngeal mucous changes into what type of epithelium
respiratory epithelium
The epithelium over the epiglottis may contain what
taste buds
What type of CT is found in the propria submucosa of the larynx
initially its a dense irregular CT which gradually changes to loose CT
What is the propria submucosa of the larynx rich in
elastic fibers, leucocytes, plasma and mast cells
What is frequently observed in the propria submucosa of the larynx
diffuse lymphatic tissues or solitary lymphatic nodules
Where are mixed glands present in the propria submucosa of the larynx
the caudal part of the larynx
What type of cartilage are thyroid and cricoid cartilage
hyaline
The epiglottis and cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilage contain what type of cartilage
elastic cartilage
What type of epithelium lines the trachea
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What type of cells are found in the epithelium of the trachea
goblet cells, migratory cells (lymphocytes, globular leucocytes and mast cells)
What type of cells are abundant in the epithelium of the trachea in young animals
neuroendocrine cells (pyramidal shaped)
What does the propria submucosa of the trachea consist of
loose CT and a subepithelial layer of elastic fibers
What type of glands are found in the propria submucosa of the trachea
tubuloacinar seromucous glands
Describe the cartilage of the trachea
C or U shaped hyaline cartilage
What are the free ends of cartilage of the trachea bridged by
smooth muscle (external in carnivores, internal in other domestic animals)
What is the external perichondrium of the trachea surrounded by
loose CT of the adventitia
What type of pluera covers the lungs
visceral or pulmonary
What does the pleura of the lungs consist of
simple squamous epithelium and a layer of CT which is continuous with that of the interalveolar septa
The pleura of the lungs is thickest in which animals
ruminants
The pleura of the lungs is thinnest in which animals
dogs and cats
What is the lung divided into
intrapulmonary conducting airways
gas exchange area
Give examples of intrapulmonary conducting airways
bronchi and bronchioles
Give examples of gas exchange areas
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoil
What is the bronchi subdivided into
primary, lobar and segmental bronchi
What type of epithelium lines the bronchi
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What type of cells are found in the epithelium of the bronchi
goblet
What happens to the cells in the proximodistal portion of the bronchi
epithelial height and number of goblet cells decreases and Clara cells (exocrine gland) increase in number
What does the propria submucosa of the bronchi contain
loose CT with submucosal glands (decrease distally)
Describe the hyaline cartilage of the bronchi
its in the form of irregular plates and smooth muscle is interspersed between the plates
In dealing with the bronchi, proximodistally what increased and what decreases
cartilages decrease, smooth muscle increases
What is the tunica adventitia of the bronchi comprised of
loose CT with collagen and elastic fibers
Bronchioles branch repeatedly into several generations and terminate as what
terminal bronchioles
What type of epithelium lines the bronchioles
columnar or cuboidal
What types of glands are found in the epithelium of the bronchioles
ciliated and Clara cells
What is abscent in the propria submucosa of the bronchioles
cartilage and glands
The circularly arranged muscle of the bronchioles cintains what
nerve fibers between muscles
What is the tunica adventitia of the bronchioles composed of
loose CT with elastic fibers oriented circularly
What is the order of the gas exchange area of the lungs
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
What are respiratory bronchioles also called
transition zone
Where is the focusof most lung disorders
respiratory bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles are similar to the terminal bronchioles with the exception that
the epithelium is interrupted by alveoli
What is present beneath the epithelium of the respiratory bronchioles
smooth muscle bundles
In which animals are the respiratory bronchioles extensive
carnivores
In which animals are respiratory bronchioles short or absent
horse, cow, pig
Where do alveolar ducts arise from
respiratory bronchioles
Where do alveolar ducts terminate
in clusters of alveoli called alveolar sac
What type of epithelium lines alveolar ducts
simple cuboidal (further up) or squamous (going further down)
What does the subepithelial CT of alveolar ducts contain
smooth muscle cells and few elastic fibers
Alveolar epithelial lining presents 2 cell types, what are they
pneumocyte type 1 (95%), pneumocyte type 2 (5%)
Describe the pneumocyte type 1 cell
a squamous epithelial cell with a cenrally placed nucleus, anchored to a continuous basal lamina
What is the pneumocyte type 2 cell also called
granular alveolar cell
Describe thepneumocyte type 2 cell
a cuboidal cell with microvilli
What is the microvilli of the pneumocyte type 2 responsible for
the production of pulmonary surfactant
What type of cells are found in the alveolar lumen
pulmonary macrophages (derived from macrophages)
What is the function of pulmonary macrophages
phagocytosis
What does the interalveolar CT consist of
a capillary plexus, fibrocytesm pericytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, collagen and elastic fibers
What is the air-blood barrier composed of
pneumocyte type 1 cell
the basal lamina of pneumocyte type 1 and the basal lamina of capillary endothelial cells
the capillary endothelial cell
the plasmalemma of a red blood cell