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Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.


First step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid.

Cellular Respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glocose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.


Electron carrier involved in glycolysis.


Process by which cells release energy in the absense of oxygen.


Process that does not require oxygen.


Process that requires oxgen.

Krebs Cycle

Second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.

Electron Transport Chain

A series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convet ADP into ATP.

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