232 terms

HOSA Physical Therapy

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When was the ADA signed into law?
July 26th, 1990
What is the term for action requiring significant difficulty or expense taking into consideration direct and net cost of accomodations, the facitilies financial resources, number of persons employed and impact of operations.
Undue Hardship
What is the term for an employer excluding a qualified individual from employment if they pose a direct threat to the health and safety of others in the work place. Must be supported by objective or medically supportable methods?
Direct Threat
What government agengies develop rules and regulations for the ADA
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ).
What is managed care type of organization; contracts with selected doctors, hosptials and pharmacies to create a network of participating providers. You pay less if you use providers that belong to the plan's network.
Preferred Provider Organization
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
A managed care type of insurance plan. Most restrictive. Patient's choose primary physician from within a network of physicians. All care must be coordinated by the primary physician. Either pay physicians a salary or set amount per patient. Must approve treatment you are about to receive.
Pre-Authorization
The process of obtaining coverage approval for a service or medication from the managed care plan
Co-payment
The portion of a fee for health care serves that is the responsibility of the patient
Medical Necessity
Legal term used to determine what services will be provided and paid for. Describes services that are consistent with a diagnosis, meets standards of good medical practice, and are not primarily for the convenience of the patient/provider.
The American Physical Therapy Association
National professional organization designed to foster advancements in physical therapy practice, research and education.
Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education
Serves the public by establishing and applying standards that assure quality and continues improvement in the level preparation of PTs and PTAs.
Medicare A
hospital visits
Medicare B
Outpatient
Medicare C
"medical insurance" Combination of both
Medicare D
Prescription drugs
Medicare level that is;

720 minutes
two separate therapists
one therapy five days a week
one therapy three days a week
Ultra High
Very High
500 minutes (34 units/8.3hrs)
must be given therapy 5 days a week
High
325 minutes (22 units/5.4 hrs)
must average 4.3 total units/day
Medium
325 minutes (22units/5.4hrs)
must average 4.3 total units/day
must be seen 5 days a week
Low
45 minutes of therapy 3 units
Patient must be treated 3 days minute 45 minutes of therapy
-restorative nursing provides atleast two activties daily during at least 6 days week
Standards of Ethical Conduct: Standard #1
Physical therapist assistants shall respect the inherent dignity and rights of all individuals
Standards of Ethical Conduct: Standard #2
Physical therapist assistants shall be trustworthly and compassionate in addressing the rights and needs of patients/clients
Standards of Ethical Conduct: Standard #3
Physical therapist assistants shall make sound decisions in collaboration with the physical therapist and within the boundaries established by laws and regulations
Standards of Ethical Conduct: 4
Physical therapists assistants shall demonstrate integrity in their relationships with patients/clients, families, colleagues, students, other health care providers employers, payers, and to the public
Standards of Ethical Conduct: #5
Physical therapist assistants shall fulfill their legal and ethical obligations
Standards of Ethical Conduct: Standard 6#
Physical Therapy assistants shall enhance their competence through the lifelong acquisition and refinement of knowledge, skills and abilities
Standards of Ethical Conduct: Standard #7
Physical therapy assistants shall support organizational behaviors and business practices that benefit patients/clients in society
Standards of Ethical Conduct: Standard #8
Physical therapist assistants shall participate in efforts to meet the health needs of people locally, nationally, or globally.
Standards of Conduct: 4E
physical therapist assistant shall not engage in any sexual relationship with any of their patients/clients, supervisees or students
Standards of Conduct: 1A
Physical therapist assistants shall act in a respectful manner toward each person regardless of age, gender, race, nationality, regligion, ethnicity, social or economic status, sexual orientation, health condition or disability
Standards of Conduct: 2A
PTA shall act i nthe best interest of patientsclients over the interests of the PTA
Standards of Conduct: 3C
Physical therapist assistant shall make decisions based upon their level of competence and consistent with patient/client values
Standards of Conduct: 3E
Physical Therapist Assistant shall provide physical therapy services under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist and shall communicate with the physical therapist when patient/client status requires modification to the established plan of care
Standards of Conduct: 6A
Physical therpaist assistnat shall achieve and mainatian clinical competence
Standards of Conduct: 6B
Physical therapist assistant shall engage in lifelong learning consistent with changes in their roles and responsibilities and advances in the practice of physical therapy.
Standards of Conduct: 7D
Physical therapist assistants shall ensure that documentation for their interventions accurately reflects the nature and extent of services provided
Standards of Ethical Conduct #7B
Physical Therapist assistants shall not accept gifts or other considerations that influence or give an appearance of influencing their decisions
Explanation of Benefits
The report you recieve from your health insurer whenever you recieve a medical service from any provider. It expalins for each service how much was paid to the provider and what your responsibility will be for the deductible and co-insurance
pre-certificaiton
The process of confirming elgibility and collecting information prior to inpatient admissions and selected ambulatory procedures and services
Medical Necessity
Services or items reasonable for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member
development milestones
functional goals for a child
education of all handicapped children act (EHCA)
passed in 1975, was that all children age 6 to 21 years of age regardless of disability are entitled to free and appropriate public education
Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)
children from birth till age 5. are able to go to school and you are required to give them the least restrictive environment
development delay
a child that has not attained predictable movement patterns or behavior associated with children of a similar chronologic age
autism
a severe disorder in the group of conditions called PDDs
congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)
one condition that may be associated with these in utero constraints
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)
inflammation of connective tissue manifested as a painful inflamed joint
Clubfoot
position of the affected foot, which is turned inward and slanted downward
development dysplasia of the hip
results from abnormal devlopment of structres surrounding the hip joint
Down syndrome
Congenital development disability caused by presence of a extra copy chromosome
Activities of daily living (ADL)
PT for older people to perform activities such as bathing, cooking, and dressing
Instrumentals activities of daily living (IADLs)
For older people to perform activities such as using public transportation and shopping
well ederly
65 years of age or older who are NOT experiencing physical limitations
Frail elderly
people over 65 years of age with conditions that impair daily functions
Presbycusis
Older peoples hearing
Hypokinesis
Decreased activity or movement
Osteoarthritis
Bone joint disease most commonly found in African Americans
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Disease of the immune system that cause chronic inflammation of the joints more common in women 40-60 years of age
Osteoporosis
Common disease in older people its decreased mineralization of the bones
Functional reach test
Measures how FAR the person can reach forward without losing balance
Dynamic balance
How long it takes the older person to walk a set distance
arteriosclerosis
plaque build up in inner wall which decreases elasticity of vessel
myocardial infraction
lack of oxygen due to blockage of blood flow to heart
ishemic
insufficient blood flow
angina
chest pain from ishemia
congestive heart failure
heart is compromised to the point it can not move blood volume effectively
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
group of disorders the produce a chronic productive cough, excessive mucus production, changes in sound when air passes bronchial tube, and shortness of breath
bronchitis
inflammation of bronchi
emphysema
trapping of air in alveoli
peripheral airway disease
collapse of terminal bronchioles
bronchial asthma
spasm like contractions of bronchi
cystic fibrosis
dysfunction of mucus glands, causing blockage of bronchi
restrictive lung disease
decrease in lungs ability to expand causing decrease in the volume of air that can move in and out of the lungs
cardiac muscle dysfunction
various conditions associated with heart failure
coronary heart disease
arteriosclerosis in coronary arteries
inspiration
diaphragm and lungs contract ton increase in space in thoracic cavity
expansion
diaphragm and lungs expand to breath
conducting airways
tubes that transport air to and from the lungs
dyspnea
shortness of breath
spirometer
tool used to measure various volumes and airflow ratio
diagnosis
description of specific disease
prognosis
maximum level of improvement patient will experience
embolus
clot formed by substance detached from elsewhere
respiration
exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between a person and cell
cardiac catheterization
passing of catheter into an artery until it reaches a heart then measures how much pressure is generated in chambers
percutaneous coronary interventions
mechanically dilating a blood vessel
echocardiography
high frequency ultrasound used o asses size of heart chamber pumping ability, and the motion of chamber walls and heart valves
electrocardiogram
assessment of heart rate and rhythm
exercise stress testing
how cardiovascular and pulmonary systems respond to controlled increased activity
chest imaging
baseline images that provide info if there is fluid in the lungs, air spaces, rib fractures, heart size, and nodules in lungs
bronchoscopy
tube placed in bronchial tube to permit visualization of structures and suction any secretion
pulmonary function test
assessment of respitory musculature and integrity of airways and lung tissue
blood and gas analysis
assessing arterial blood to determine concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide
coronary artery bypass graft
attaching a small artery to a point beyond blockage to reestablish blood flow
Anencephaly
A form of neural tube defect that results from a lack of the neural tube closure at the base of the brain. Not compatible with life and results in fetal death or death shortly after delivery.
Cerebral palsy (CP)
Group of conditions caused by a non-progressive lesion on the brain most often it has its origin before birth, at birth, or after birth and is caused by an interruption of oxygen to the brain of the fetus or new born.
Autism
A neural developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication skills, and repetitive behaviors.
Club foot
Disorder in which the foot is turned inward and slanted upward
Congenital muscular torticolis (CMT)
(Twisted neck) the muscle extending down the side of the neck is tight and shortened. An infant holds his or her head to one side and has difficulties turning the head
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
Most common inherited chronic pulmonary disease among white children, characterized by production of thick mucous with progressive lung damage
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD)
Motor condition in children with dysfunctions and motor coordination problems such as: awkward running, frequent falling, slow reaction times, immature balance reactions, poor handwriting, difficulty with AILDs
Developmental delay
Failure to obtain predictable movement patterns or behaviors associated with children of a similar chronological age
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)
Dislocation caused from abnormal development of structures surrounding the hip joint; allows the head of the femur to move in and out of the hip socket
Developmental milestone
Movement pattern that appears at a certain stage of growth and development
Disablement process
Examination that focuses on an individual's impairments, functional limitations, disability, and resultant restrictions in activities
Down syndrome
Congenital developmental disability caused by a defect of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
Progressive pelvic muscle weakness and waisting in a male child, combined with enlarged yet weak thigh muscles and tight heel chords
Dynamical systems theory
Treatment approach in children that incorporate all of the body's systems with the environment to facilitate or inhibit movements, emphasizes the process of moving rather than the product of a movement
Eclectic approach
Combination of therapeutic approaches used by the physical therapist and thought to be useful for a treatment of a given client
Enablement process
Examination process focusing on an individual's structural body and concurrent abilities while addressing age appropriate movement patterns and activities
Family assessment
Family interview, survey, or discussion used to obtain the families insights regarding a patient, especially a child; family history, relationships, concerns, needs, resources
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Most severe condition in a continuum of alcohol induced disabilities related to high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy
Goal-directed movement approach
Treatment approach that emphasizes the importance of task and environment features as a primary impetus for movement
Individualized education plan ( IEP)
A collaboration of therapists and family members, educators, and other healthcare team members to provide direct intervention in the classroom setting
Individualized family service plan (IFSP)
Detailed total plan of care for the child and the context of the family unit
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)
Rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of the connective tissue that manifests as a painful inflamed joint
begins in childhood
Meningocele
Benign herniation of meninges manifesting as a soft tissue cyst or lump surrounding a normal spinal cord and producing no neurologic deficits
Meningomyelocele
Open congenital spinal cord region with minimal to no skin protection covering the deeper nerve roots most severe of these cases results in loss of motor function and sensation of the lower part of the body
Neural tube defect
The neural tube fails to clothes completely during the first month of gestational development
Neural developmental treatment (NDT)
Analyzes and treats neurologic disorders of posture an movement. Uses a motivating environment and a patients active participation.manual facilitation and inhibition techniques are employed by the therapist to present the patient with a "normal" sensory experience
Norm referenced
Assessment based on a large number of participants to create a comparison group
Normal developmental theory
Therapy goals and objectives that are designed to follow the progression of a normal motor development, this assumes children with central nervous system damage will acquire motor skills in a similar way as children with normal developing systems
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)
Common and severe bone impairment of genetic origin, affects the formation of collagen during bone development resulting in frequent fractures during fetal and new-born period
Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (PDI)
A group of disorders of neural development characterized by impairments and social interaction and communication and the presence of unusual behaviour a such as repeating actions and poor play skills
Plagiocephaly
Deformation of the skull during development caused by prolonged positioning in uterine or in the first few months of life
Prenatal cocaine exposure
Fetal exposure to cocaine in utero owing to maternal cocaine use during pregnancy symptoms after birth include hyper irritability, poor feeding patterns, high respiratory and heart rates, increase tremulous, irregular sleeping patterns
Scoliosis
Lateral curvature of the spine; may be idiopathic neuromuscular or congenital
Secondary condition
Condition that is potentially preventable and is a direct or indirect consequence of inadequate attention to a disability
Sensory integration (SI)
Technique based on the theory that poor integration and use of sensory input (feedback) prevent subsequent motor planning (output)
Providing controlled vestibular and somatosensory experiences enables the child to integrate the sensory info. To evoke a spontaneous, functional response
Spina bifida
Congenital incomplete closure of the vertabrae
Spina bifida aculta
Congenital incomplete closure of a vertebrae (separation of the spinous process) that is not associated with disability
Spinal muscular atrophy
Genetic disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness in infancy and progressive respiratory failure
Standardized testing
Type of formal test in which the evaluation procedures remain the same when administered by different therapists and at various test locations
arterial insufficiency
deficiency or occlusion of blood flow through an artery
chronic inflammation
low grade, protracted inflammatory process
collagen
supportive, strong, and fibrous connective tissue protein that is found in dermis, tendon, cartilage fascia, ligament, and bone.
dermis
portion of the skin directly under the dermis; made up of fibrous connective tissue and supports sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, and nerve endings, blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles and their allied smooth muscle
epidermis
outer layer of the skin
ground substance
supportive amorphous, gel-like substance secreted by fibroblasts; fills space between connective tissue fibers and cells
hypertrophic scar
excess of collagen deposited at the site of a healing or healed wound that is noticeably different from the normal skin; scar remains within the boundaries of the original wound
inflammatory phase
phase of wound healing encompassing vascular reactions that decrease blood loss and initiate vessel repair, and cellular responses that moderate blood loss, fight infection, and provide nutrition and oxygen to initiate and sustain tissue repair
inflammatory skin diseases
diseases of the skin whose causes invoke an inflammatory response
integument
skin
keloid scar
excess of collagen deposited at the site of a healing or healed wound that is noticeably different from normal skin: scar commonly extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound
maturation phase
phase of wound healing that includes collagen synthesis and lysis, as well as reorientation of the collagen fibers that remain at wound site; remodling phase
neoplastic skin diseases
cancers affecting the skin
neopathic (nuerotropic) ulcer
skin lesion caused by a decreased cutaneous sensation that disallows protective responses such as weight transfer; these ulcers are commonly associated with diabetes mellitus
pressure ulcer
skin lesion caused by ischemia of the integument secondary to pressure; generally located at bony prominences
prolifterative phase
phase of wound healing that involves increased activity of fibroblasts, instigation of aggressive wound contraction, and epithelialization
scar contracture
permanent or relatively permanent lack of mobility of the scar tissue that results in functional and/or cosmetic impairment
total body surface area (TBSA)
the extent of the surface of the body covered by skin ; percent used to describe size of skin injury
Vancouver Burn Scar Scale
clinical method for assessing scar tissues. Characters of scar that are examined include pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and height
venous insufficiency
deficiency or occlusion of blood flow through vein
Conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system are the primary domain of physical therapists who specialize in
orthopedic physical therapy
Physical Therapy for musculoskeletal conditions is the focus on a
patients function
Dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system result in
symptoms of pain, stiffness, edema(swelling, muscle weakness or fatigue, or loss of range of motion
Range of Motion( ROM)
movement of a joint
The increased use of computers and other technical machinery recurring repeated motions has also had an impact on the incidence of overuse injuries in the upper extremity. They are at risk of...
the development of muscle injury or nerve entrapment requiring intervention by a PT
A orthopaedic PT may work with
athletes but may also treat a variety of musculoskeletal conditions that are not related to sports activities
Musculoskeletal injuries are sustained through
athletic participation, work related injuries, conditions resulting from orthopedic surgical procedures and degenerative changes that accompany the aging process
Overuse injuries
repeated stress to the musculoskeletal system can cause oversees injuries that may result in pain, inflammation, and dysfunction.
Bursitis
an inflammation of bursa, which are fluid-filled sacs located throughout the body that decrease friction between structures. Bursa become irritated and painful when they are repeatedly pinched between structures. EX: injury at the shoulder, the subacromial bursa may be pinched during repeated movements when the shoulder is in a overhead position, such as painting, reaching or throwing.
Tendinopathy
Tendons are the structures that connect muscle to bone. Repeated use or rapid over stretching of muscles can overload and injure the tendons. see pg. 176
Nerve Entrapment
Pressure on a nerve. Symptoms: tingling, pain, weakness, or any combination of these. Common Condition: Carpal Tunnel syndrome, patients usually complain of numbness in hands or fingers which is from the result of repeated activities with the wrist in a flexed position.
Traumatic Injuries
Musculoskeletal injuries that occur as a result of direct trauma. Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other soft tissue may be injured when they sustain a direct blow or when they are placed under excessive stretch.
Ligament Sprain
supporting structures of joints that serve to stabilize the joint and prevent excess movement. When ligaments are overstretched fibers tear and cause pain and instability at the joint. Ex: ACL- result of a cutting or twisting movement of the knee when the foot is planted , commonly occurring in sports.
Fracture
Direct trauma to the bone causing a break. Most common in older adults. Radiographs are used to diagnose.
Muscle Strain
A sudden contraction of a muscle fiber or excessive stretch on a muscle can cause tearing of the muscle fibers.
Total Joint Arthroplasty
Joints most commonly replaced are weight-bearing joints. A variety of plastic and stainless steel implants are used to effectively replace degenerated joint surfaces.
Amputation
Postoperative physical therapy often includes exercises to maintain strength in the remaining of the limb, functional training with a prothesis, and activities to improve overall fitness and well being.
Subjective Examination/Objective Examination
The History of the Patient/The Remaining Parts
Questions asked during a patient interview
about the onset of the condition, current symptoms, previous physical therapy treatments, past medical history, and lifestyle and health habits pertaining to work and recreation. See page 179
Review of Symptoms(ROS)
is usually preformed by using checklists of common symptoms typically associated with various systems of the body.
Systems Review
the objective portion of the examination refers to quantize or qualitative measurements that are taken by the Pt.
Active Range of Motion
refers to the ability of the patient to voluntarily move a limb through an arc of movement. "willingness of patient to move"
Passive Range of Motion
refers to the amount of movement at a joint that is obtained by the therapists moving the segment without the assistance from the patient.
Gonimeter
measures joint angles
Strength
can be defined as the amount of force produced during voluntary muscular contraction
Manual Muscle testing
allows the therapist to assign a specific grade to the muscle.
Flexibility
refers to the ability to move a ligament through specific ROM. The amount of flexibility at a given joint depends on: the soft tissue surrounding the joint most be pliable to allow movement between the joint surfaces. Also, the muscles crossing the joint must be at the appropriate length allow motion to occur.
Accessory Motion
the ability of the joint surfaces to glide, roll, and spin on each other.
Outcome Measures
are standardized instruments that measure an individuals actual or perceived activity limitations and participations restrictions and an individuals quality of life or health status.
Special Tests
used to examine specific joints to indicate the presence or absence of a particular problem.
Palpatation
PT's use their sense of touch, to assess what is occurring below the skin. The PT feels for areas of tenderness, areas of restrictions, swelling, and proper orientation of structures.
Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS)
The patient is asked to list up to five activities that he or she is having difficulty preforming because of his or her injury or condition. zero to 10 scale
Physical Agents
are available for PTs to incorporate into the plan of care when treating patients with musculoskeletal problems. EX: heat, cold, electrical stimulation
Fluidtherapy
is the use of a self-contained unit filled with corncobs finely chopped into a sawdust type substance.
Hydrotheraphy
the use of therapeutic effects of water
Thermal Ultrasound
the use of therapeutic of high frequency sound waves that penetrate tissue and increase tissue temperature to promote healing and reduce pain.
Short-wave diathermy
the use of electromagnetic energy to produce deep heating effects
Creyotherapy
therapeutic cold may be applied to decrease tissue temperature.
akinesia
Loss of voluntary movements
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
also known as Lou Gehrick disease rapidly progressive neurological disorder associated with a degeneration of the motor nerve cells
angiography
technique in which radiopaque material is injected into the blood vessels to to better visualize and identify such as blockage of blood vessels, aneurysms, and vascular malformations
bradykinesia
slowness of movement
Bruunstorm approach
Neurologic technique based on the natural sequence of recovery after a stroke
computed (axial) tomography (CAT) (CT)
computer synthesis of x-rays transmitted through a specific plane of the body
Constraint-induced movement therapy
is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb
electroencephalgraphy
technique for recording the electrical potential or activity in the brain by placing electrodes on the scalp
electromyography (EMG)
technique for recording the electrical activity in the muscle during a state of rest and during voluntary contraction
expressive aphasia
impaired ability to express oneself
hypertonia
high muscle tone
hypotonia
low muscle tone
loco motor training
type of therapy to help improve and recover your walking movement through challenged practice and lower extremity weight bearing. You may benefit from therapy to recover locomotor abilities if you're experiencing: Impaired movement and sensations (impaired neurological body functions)
lumbar puncture (LP)
injection of a hypodermic needle into the lumbar sub-arachnoid space
magnetic resonance imaging MRI
creation of computer image by placing the body part in a magnetic field
motor control
ability to manipulate movement and non movement of the body's musculoskeletal components
motor development
age related processes of change in motor behavior
motor learning
body's mechanism for acquiring or learning voluntary motor control
multiple sclerosis MS
disease in patches of demyelination occur in the nervous system, leading to disturbances in conduction of action potential along the nerves
nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
study that records the rate at which electrical signals are transmitted along peripheral nerves.
neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT)
Approach to both analyze and treat neurological of posture and movement.
neuroplasticity
the ability to of neurons in the brain to compensate for injury or disease
paraplegia
spinal cord damage and resultant loss of sensory or motor function affecting the lower leg trunk and legs
Parkinson's disease
progressive condition caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine, characterized by tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia and alkinesia
perception
ability to to integrate various simultaneous sensory inputs and to respond appropriately
proprioceptive nueromuscular facilitation (PNF)
technique used to enhance movement and motor control, emphasizing proprioceptive (joint and position sense) stimuli but also using tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli
receptive aphasia
diminished ability to receive and interpret verbal or written communication
rigidity
disturbance of muscle tone; manifests as a resistance when the limbs are passively moved
sensation
ability to receive sensory input from within and outside the body and transmit it through nerves to interpret in brain
spasticity
(from Greek spasmos-, meaning "drawing, pulling") is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity and hypertonia. It is also colloquially referred to as an unusual "tightness", stiffness, or "pull" of muscles.
spinal cord injury (SCI)
damage to the spinal cord that results in neurological dysfunction
stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
neurological problem arising from disruption of of blood flow in the brain
systems model
...
task-oriented approach
intervention technique used for nueromuscular conditons that focuses on the specific intended task and retraining using functional activities to accomplish the task
tetraplegia
spinal cord damage damage resulting in loss of sensory or motor function in all limbs
tone
tension exerted and or maintained by muscles at rest and during movement
traumatic brain injury (TBI)
damage to the brain caused by physical means and resulting in dysfunction
tremor
alternating contractions of opposing muscle groups
vertigo
sensation of spinning or whirling that occurs as a result of a disturbance in balance
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