Biology

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Metabolism
The process in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources to sustain the organisms life functions.
Anabolism
The process in which an organism which USES energy and simple chemical building blocks to PRODUCE large chemicals and structures necessary for life
Catabolism
The process in an organism which BREAK DOWN chemicals to PRODUCE energy and simple chemical building blocks
Photosynthesis
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Herbivore
An organism that eats only plants
Carnivore
An organism that only eats meat
Omnivore
An organism that eats both plants and animals
Producer
An organism that can make its own food.
Consumer
An organism that eats living producers and/or other consumers for food
Decomposer
An organism that breaks down the remains of dead organisms
Autotrophs
Organisms that make their own food
Heterotroph
An organism that depends of other organisms for food.
Receptors
Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment.
asexual reproduction
process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
Reproduction that requires two organisms
Inheritance
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring
Mutation
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
Hypothesis
An educated guess
Theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
scientific law
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
microorganisms
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye
Abiogenesis
The idea that long ago, very simple life forms spontaneously appeared through chemical reactions.
All organisms are divided into five kingdoms
Monera Protista fungi animalia plantae
prokaryotic cell
A cell with no distinct membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic cells
A cell with distinct membrane bound organelles
classification system is divided into five groups
Kingdom phylum class order family genus species
Species
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
Taxonomy
The scientific study of how living things are classified
binomial nomenclature
Naming an organism with its genus and species name.
the three-domain system
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Pathogen
An organism that causes disease
capsule
Surrounds the cell wall
cell wall
Holds the bacterium together,regulates the amount of water, and holds the cell into one of three basic shapes
plasma membrane
protects the cell from its surroundings by by determining which chemicals can enter the cell
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Fimbriae
Fibrous bristles typically used for grasping
Flagellum
A long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
Flagellum has 3 basic parts
Filament, hook, basal body
Saprophyte
An organism that feeds on dead matter
Parisite
An organism that feeds on a living host
The two different means by which bacteria manufacture their own food
Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Aerobic organisms
An organism that can only survive with oxygen
Anaerobic organisms
An organism that does not require oxygen.
steady state
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.
exponential growth
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
logistic growth
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources
Conjugation
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.
Plasmid
A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
Transformation
The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
Transduction
The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
Endospore
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.
negative
If a bacterium has a cell wall that doesn't retain the Gram-stain, is it negative or positive
Gracilicutes
If a cell wall doesn't retain the gram-stain, to what phylum does it belong?
If a bacterium has a cell wall that retains the gram stain, to what phylum does it belong?
Firmicutes
Some bacterium have no cell wall at all and belong to Phylum
Tenericutes
some bacteria possess a cell wall but the compounds which form these walls are rather different from the compounds that form gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Mendosicutes