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Philip II

Inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies. His duty was to defend Catholicism against the Muslims, Ottomans, and Protestants

Absolute Monarch

Kings or Queens who held all the power within their state's boundaries

Divine Right

The idea that God created the Monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on earth

Edict of Nantes

Declaration of religious toleration

Cardinal Richelieu

Was the real power in France. Leader of the Catholic Church in France. Tried to increase the power of the Bourbon dynasty


Idea that nothing can ever be known for certain

Louis XIV

he established a strong absolute monarchy in France. He fought four wars in order to establish natural borders for France but forced his country into financial ruin.


Government agents who collected taxes and administered justice

Jean Baptiste-Colbert

Minister of Finance under Louis XIV. Be lieved in the theory of Mercantilism. Tried to make France self-sufficient

War of the Spanish Succession

War fought by other European nations against France and Spain when those two states tried to unite their thrones

Thirty years war

A conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families

Maria Theresa

Eldest daughter of Charles VI, the Hapsburg ruler. She decreased the power of the nobility, and also limited the amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do

Frederick the Great

This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler

Seven Years War

war involving all european powers over territory; known as the french and indian war in the new world

Ivan the Terrible

(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.


Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.

Peter the Great

Absolute ruler of Russia; Tried to westernize Russia by sending scholars to study in the west; Forced nobles to adopt western customs; Moved capital to St. Petersburg


policy of Peter the Great. Adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture

Charles I

Dissolved the English Parliament several times because they refused him money., Ruler of England who was tried and beheaded after his attempts to get rid of parliament led to a disastrous English Civil War

English Civil War

A war that broke out between the parliament supporters (roundheads) and the king's supporters (cavaliers).

Oliver Cromwell

leader who took power after charles I was beheaded; became essentially a military dictator.

Habeas Corpus

the right of an accused person to be brought before a judge and informed of the charges and evidence against him or her


the reign of Charles II in England

Glorious Revolution

In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.

Constitutional Monarchy

a monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation


a group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions

Peace of Augsburg

Allowed German Princes to choose the religion for their territory


Campaign to drive all Muslims out of Spain

Miguel de Cervantes

Author of Don Quixote de la Mancha

EL Greco

His technique showed the deep Catholic faith that existed in Spain. Real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos


Greatest Dutch artist of this period. Used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus


Dutch artist who was also fascinated with the effects of light and dark.

St. Bartholomew's day Massacre

A 6 week nationwide slaughter of French Huguenots.


Brilliant thinker who examined the idea of Skepticism. Heavily influenced modern day thinkers and helped to develop the scientific method

Cardinal Mazarin

Richelieu's successor. Hated by many people in France for increasing taxes. Help to end the Thirty Years war

Sun King

Nickname given to Louis XIV because of his extravagant lifestyle

Treaty of Utrecht

Helped to bring about the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. Did not allow the unification of the thrones of Spain and France

Ferdinand II

Holy Roman Emperor and Head of the Hapsburg family. Sent an army into Bohemia to crush a Protestant revolt

Gustavus Adolphus

Drove the Hapsburg armies out of Northern Germany


Landowning nobility of Prussia

Frederick William

Known as the Great Elector, created a large standing army in Prussia, which at the time was regarded as the best army in Europe


Austrian land wanted by Frederick the Great because it contained iron ore, textiles and food products.

Michael Romanov

Grandnephew of Ivan the terrible's wife Anastasia, began the long reign of the Romanov family

Grand Embassy

Peter's long visit to Western Europe to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques to help westernize Russia

William of Orange

Prince from the Netherlands, who led an army to London to face James II

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