Inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies. His duty was to defend Catholicism against the Muslims, Ottomans, and Protestants
Kings or Queens who held all the power within their state's boundaries
The idea that God created the Monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on earth
Edict of Nantes
Declaration of religious toleration
Was the real power in France. Leader of the Catholic Church in France. Tried to increase the power of the Bourbon dynasty
Idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
he established a strong absolute monarchy in France. He fought four wars in order to establish natural borders for France but forced his country into financial ruin.
Government agents who collected taxes and administered justice
Minister of Finance under Louis XIV. Be lieved in the theory of Mercantilism. Tried to make France self-sufficient
War of the Spanish Succession
War fought by other European nations against France and Spain when those two states tried to unite their thrones
Thirty years war
A conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families
Eldest daughter of Charles VI, the Hapsburg ruler. She decreased the power of the nobility, and also limited the amount of labor that nobles could force peasants to do
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Seven Years War
war involving all european powers over territory; known as the french and indian war in the new world
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.
Peter the Great
Absolute ruler of Russia; Tried to westernize Russia by sending scholars to study in the west; Forced nobles to adopt western customs; Moved capital to St. Petersburg
policy of Peter the Great. Adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
Dissolved the English Parliament several times because they refused him money., Ruler of England who was tried and beheaded after his attempts to get rid of parliament led to a disastrous English Civil War
English Civil War
A war that broke out between the parliament supporters (roundheads) and the king's supporters (cavaliers).
leader who took power after charles I was beheaded; became essentially a military dictator.
the right of an accused person to be brought before a judge and informed of the charges and evidence against him or her
the reign of Charles II in England
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
a monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation
a group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
Peace of Augsburg
Allowed German Princes to choose the religion for their territory
Campaign to drive all Muslims out of Spain
Miguel de Cervantes
Author of Don Quixote de la Mancha
His technique showed the deep Catholic faith that existed in Spain. Real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos
Greatest Dutch artist of this period. Used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
Dutch artist who was also fascinated with the effects of light and dark.
St. Bartholomew's day Massacre
A 6 week nationwide slaughter of French Huguenots.
Brilliant thinker who examined the idea of Skepticism. Heavily influenced modern day thinkers and helped to develop the scientific method
Richelieu's successor. Hated by many people in France for increasing taxes. Help to end the Thirty Years war
Nickname given to Louis XIV because of his extravagant lifestyle
Treaty of Utrecht
Helped to bring about the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. Did not allow the unification of the thrones of Spain and France
Holy Roman Emperor and Head of the Hapsburg family. Sent an army into Bohemia to crush a Protestant revolt
Drove the Hapsburg armies out of Northern Germany
Landowning nobility of Prussia
Known as the Great Elector, created a large standing army in Prussia, which at the time was regarded as the best army in Europe
Austrian land wanted by Frederick the Great because it contained iron ore, textiles and food products.
Grandnephew of Ivan the terrible's wife Anastasia, began the long reign of the Romanov family
Peter's long visit to Western Europe to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques to help westernize Russia
William of Orange
Prince from the Netherlands, who led an army to London to face James II