91 terms

HOSA Dental Science

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Infectious Agent
-an entity that is capable of causing disease
>Biological
>Chemical
>Physical
(Biological agents are the most dangerous)
Dental Handpieces
-high and low
-controlled by the rheostat (a disk on the floor)
Air Water Syringe
-provides air and water
Ridge
-linear elevation of enamel found on the tooth
Pit
-the place where the grooves come together or the fissures cross
-decay of the tooth often begins here
Circulatory System
-carries life sustaining substances such as nutrients and oxygen throughout the body
-carries away waste materials
-maintains a balance between intracellular and extracellular fluids
Fossa
-a shallow, rounded, angular depression
Fissure
-developmental groove resulting from an imperfect union where the lobes come together
Cusp
-pointed or rounded mound on the crown of the tooth
Cingulum
-convex area on the lingual surface of the anterior teeth, near the gingiva
Buccal Groove
-linear depression forming a groove on the middle of the buccal surface to the occlusal surface
Bifurcated
-two roots
Apical Foramen
-opening in the end of the tooth at the root where nerve and blood vessels enter
Apex
-at or near the end of the root
Reproductive System
-provides new life
Furcation
-the dividing point of a multi rooted tooth
Resevoir
-a place where the agent can survive
Portal of Exit
-the route by which the infectious agent leaves the reservoir to be transferred to a susceptible host
Mode of Transmission
-the process that bridges the gap between the portal of exit and the portal of entry
>contact transmission (STD's, flu, cold)
>airborne transmission (measles, anthrax)
>vehicular transmission (instruments, food, water)
>vector borne transmission (mosquitoes)
Portal of Entry
-the route by which an infectious agent enters the host
Host
-a simple or complex organism that can be affected by an agent
>susceptible: a person who lacks an agent and is vulnerable to disease
>compromised: a person whose normal defense mechanisms are impaired and who is therefore more susceptible to infection
Endocrine System
-controls growth
-produces insulin
-stimulates sexual growth and development
Fluoridation
-the process of adding fluoride to the water supply
Dentrifices
-the toothpaste used with brushing and flossing for patient oral hygiene self care
-all dentrifices have a mild abrasive to help remove stains, most contain fluoride, and help reduce tooth decay
Embrasure
-triangular space in between teeth
Lymphatic System
-provides nutrients, drains body fluids, and absorbs fats
Chain of Infection
1. infectious agent
2. reservoir of source
3. portal of exit
4. mode of transmission
5. portal of entry
6. susceptible host
Blood Types
-AB is the universal RECIPIENT
-O is the universal DONOR
Integumentary System
-provides the body protection
-includes skin, hair, and nails
Muscular System
-muscles contract and relax to allow external body movement and production of the body heat
-internal muscles work to move food along the digestive tract and keep the heart beating
Nervous System
-provides a communication system for the body
-response to both internal and external stimuli
Use of the Cotton Pliers
-to place and remove items from the oral cavity such as cotton rolls, pellets, wedges, and large debris
-to grasp and transfer materials to and from the oral cavity
-to retrieve items without contamination
Use of the Explorer
-examination of the tooth structure
-examination of restorations
-removal of excess materials
Radiation
-leakage radiation: from the machine
-primary radiation: the main radiation
-scatter radiation: from the main radiation
Uses of the Mouth Mirror
-indirect vision
-reflection of light
-refraction
-transillumination
Black's Formula
-formulated by GV Black to standardize the exact size and angulation of an instrument
1. blade width
2. cutting edge angle
3. blade length
4. blade angle
Instrument Anatomy
-handle
-shank
-working end
Operation Zones
12-2= static
2-4= assistant
4-7= transfer
7-12= operator
Amalgamator
-mixes amalgam and cement (respectively)
Fluoride
-natural mineral nutrient that when its content is at "optimum level" nine the teeth, there is a significant reduction in caries
Xerostomia
-abnormal dryness due to excess radiation or chemotherapy treatments
-cancer patients can experience this
Dental Curing Lights
-used to set or cure things (brackets and glue)
>Halogen
>*LED*
>Radiometer
High Volume Evacuator
(HVE)
-giant tube sucky thing
Modified Stillman
-designated to do a good overall cleaning, remove plaque, and stimulate and massage the gingiva
-DIFFERENCE: bristles are pointed apically (towards the root of the tooth)
Bass
-most popular in the dental community
-used to remove plaque next to and directly beneath the gingival margin
Halitosis
-bad breath
Periodontitis
-in this disease process, the margins of gingival and periodontal fibers recede
Diastema
-space or gap between teeth
Occlusal
-the pulverizing or chewing space
Buccal
-"outside" surface towards the cheek
Incisal Edge
-the biding or cutting edge
Lingual
-"inside" surface on the anterior teeth
-towards the tongue
Labial
-"outside" surface on the anterior teeth
-towards the lips
Distal
-surface away from the midline
Mesial
-surface towards the midline
Molars
-used for chewing or masticating food
>masticating: "grinding"
Lateral Incisor
-used for cutting
Central Incisor
-used to cut or bite food
Remineralization
-occurs when the minerals are replaced in the tooth
Permanent Teeth
-32 teeth
-arranged similarly to primary teeth
Primary Teeth
-20 teeth
-"baby teeth"
-sometimes called deciduous teeth
Quadrants
-maxillary right quadrant
-maxillary left quadrant
-mandibular right quadrant
-mandibular left quadrant
Mandibular
-lower arch
-only moveable bone in the skull
Maxillary
-upper arch
Demineralization
-acid attacks the tooth and eventually causes demineralization in which minerals, calcium, and phosphate, are lost from the enamel surface
Plaque
-a sticky mass that contains bacteria and grows in colonies in the teeth
CPR
-cardiopulmonary resuscitation
-CAB: chest compressions, airway, breathing
-compressions= 30 compressions to 2 breaths
-breathing= barrier device, 2 slow breaths to every 30 chest compressions 1.5 seconds to every breath
Digestive System
-takes food in, breaks it down, and converts it to substances the body needs to sustain life
-provides a means for the body to eliminate solid wastes
Respiratory System
-brings oxygen into the body that is transported to all cells
-the waste product, carbon dioxide, is picked up and exhaled
Immune
-protects the body from disease and harmful substances
Skeletal
-provides basic framework of the body
-protects, shapes, and gives support to the body
-source of attachment muscles
-stores minerals and manufactures blood cells
Dentition
-natural teeth in position
Tongue
Syncope
-the most common and least life threatening emergency that may occur in the dental office is vasodepressor syncope, or fainting
-usually from stress
Charters
-used to loosen up plaque and debris to stimulate both the marginal and interdental gingiva
-DIFFERENCE: angle
Wilhelm Roentgen
-he discovered X-rays in 1895
Ultrasonic Scaler
-handpiece that the burs go on
Trifurcated
-three roots
Hippocrates
-the father of medicine
Oath of Hippocrates
-basis for the code of ethics used by the medical and dental professions in regard to the solemn obligation these professionals undertake when caring for patients
Leonardo DaVinci
-the first person to differentiate between premolars and molars
Caries
-dental decay (cavities)
Pierre Fauchard
-founder of modern dentistry
Paul Revere
-made dental instruments and artificial teeth
Josiah Flagg
-made the first dental chair in (1760)
GV Black
-"Grand Old Man of Dentistry"
ADA
-the American Dental Association
Dental Team
-dentists
-dental assistants
-dental hygienists
-dental lab techs
-other
Types of Dental Professions
-Orthodontics
-Oral Surgery
-Oral Pathology
-Oral Radiology
-Endodontics
-Periodontics
-Prosthodontics
-Pediatric Dentistry
-Dental Public Health
(9)
Juliette Southard
-the first president of the ADAA
>ADAA: the American Dental Assistants Association
Delivery Systems
#1: Rear- behind the patient's head
#2: Side- dentist's side (mounted or on a cart)
#3: Front- pulled over the patient's chest
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