36 terms

Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 4

Lessons 1, 2, and 3 vocab words.
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weather
day-to-day condition of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, and other factors
climate
average year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area over a long period of time
microclimate
environmental conditions within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
greenhouse effect
phenomenon in which certain gases trap heat in Earth's atmosphere
tolerance
ability of an organism to survive and reproduce under circumstances that differ from their optimal conditions
habitat
area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
niche
the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism interacts with its surroundings
resource
any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
competitive exclusion principle
principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
predation
interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
symbiosis
relationship in which two species live close together
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and harms it
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
ecological succession
series of gradual changes that occur in a community following a disturbance
primary succession
succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during succession
secondary succession
type of succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances
polar zone
Cold climate zone where the sun's rays strike Earth at a very low angle
temperate zone
Moderate climate zone between the polar zones and the tropics
tropical zone
Warm climate zone that receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year round
biotic factor
Any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact
abiotic factor
non-living parts of an organism's habitat.
biome
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
humus
organic, dark material remaining after decomposition of living organisms
plankton
Tiny organisms that float in the water
phytoplankton
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
zooplankton
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
detritus
Collective term for animal and plant remains and other particulate matter.
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
photic zone
sunlit region near the surface of water
aphotic zone
dark layer of the open ocean where sunlight does not penetrate
benthos
organisms that live attached to or near the bottom of lakes, streams, or oceans
wetland
ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year
estuary
A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
climax community
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time