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the capacity to do work.


a measure of how much energy of a particular system has become dispersed.


the process by which such chemical changes occur.


(aka substrates), molecules that enter a reaction.


molecules that remain at the reaction's end.


energy goes into it.


energy goes out of it

Solar energy

Energy from the sun.


catalysts, which are molecules that make chemical reactions proceed much faster than they would on their own.

Activation energy

the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.


to alter the protein's structure chemically causing it to lose some or all of its specific characteristics.

Metabolic pathways

any series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which a cell builds, rearranges, or breaks down an organic substance.

Feedback inhibition

the end product of a series of enzymatic reactions inhibits the first enzyme in the series.

Allosteric site

a region of an enzyme other than the active site that can bind regulatory molecules.

Biosynthetic (anabolic)

pathways that build molecules from smaller ones.

Degradative (catabolic)

pathways that break molecules apart..

Electron Transfer Chain

energy is released in amounts that cells can harness for cellular work, such as muscle contraction or active transport.

Oxidation Reduction Reaction

a molecule accepts electrons (it becomes reduced) from another molecule (which becomes oxidized).


chemical energy is converted into light energy.


the distance between the crests of two successive waves of light; also the measurement of light (nm).

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