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Poli Sci Quiz 3
Terms in this set (111)
Powers of the federal government specifically mentioned in the
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, also called the necessary and proper clause; gives Congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers and other of its powers vested in the Constitution.
As applied to a legislative body, consisting of two houses or chambers.
According to the doctrine articulated by Edmund Burke, an elected
representative who acts in perfect
accord with the wishes of his or her
An elected representative who believes
that his or her own best judgment,
rather than instructions from constituents, should be used in making legislative decisions.
Sometimes called statistical representation; the degree to which the composition of a representative body reflects
the demographic composition of the
population as a whole.
The district of a legislator.
A citizen who lives in the district of
an elected official.
The reallocation of House seats
among the states, done after each national census, to ensure that seats are held by the states in proportion to the
size of their populations.
The redrawing of congressional district lines within a state to ensure
roughly equal populations within each district.
A committed member of a party; also,
seeing issues from the point of view of
the interests of a single party.
Redrawing electoral district lines in an
extreme and unlikely manner to give
an advantage to a particular party or candidate
The act of dividing a district where
the opposing party has a large majority, rendering it a minority in both parts of the redrawn districts.
The process of concentrating voters
for the other party into fewer districts
in order to weaken them elsewhere.
Districts drawn to ensure that a racial
minority makes up the majority of voters
An election in which there is no incumbent officeholder.
Public subsidization of mail from
the members of Congress to their
Services performed by members of
Congress for constituents.
Also called pork barrel; federally funded projects designed to bring
to the constituency jobs and public money for which the members of
Congress can claim credit.
An organization of the members of a
political party in the House or Senate.
A regional, ethnic, racial, or economic
subgroup within the House or Senate.
Also used to describe the party in the
House and Senate, as in Republican
A political party member in Congress charged with keeping members informed of the plans of the party leadership, counting votes before action on important issues, and rounding up
party members for votes on bills.
Relatively permanent congressional
committees that address specific areas
The taking of testimony by a congressional committee or subcommittee.
The process of revising a bill in
Temporary committees in Congress created to conduct studies or investigations; they have no power to report bills.
Congressional committees with mem-
bers from both the House and the
Ad hoc committees, made up of members of both the Senate and the House of Representatives, set up to reconcile
differences in the provisions of bills.
The principle that one attains a position on the basis of length of service
ranking minority member
The highest-ranking member of the
minority party on a congressional
Deferral by members of Congress to the judgment of subject-matter specialists, mainly on minor technical
Legislative action taken "without objection" as a way to expedite business; used to conduct much of the business
of the Senate.
A tactic by which a single senator can prevent action on a bill or nomination; based on an implied threat of refusing to agree to unanimous consent on other Senate matters or willingness to
filibuster the bill or nomination
A parliamentary device used in the
Senate to prevent a bill from coming
to a vote by "talking it to death," made
possible by the norm of unlimited
A vote to end a filibuster; requires the
votes of three-fifths of the member-
ship of the Senate
The box in the House of Representatives in which proposed bills are
A petition signed by 218 House members to force a bill that has been before a committee for at least 30 days
while the House is in session out of the committee and onto the floor for consideration
Presidential disapproval of a bill that
has been passed by both houses of
Congress. The president's veto can
be overridden by a two-thirds vote in
Rejection of a bill if the president
takes no action on it for 10 days and
Congress has adjourned during that
Congressional responsibility for monitoring the actions of executive branch agencies and personnel to ensure conformity to federal statutes and congressional intent
House action bringing formal charges
against a member of the executive
branch or the federal judiciary that
may or may not lead to removal from
office by the Senate.
The legal doctrine that a person who
is arrested must have a timely hearing
before a judge
State of the Union
Annual report to the nation by the
president, now delivered before a joint
session of Congress, on the state of
the nation and his legislative proposals
for addressing national problems.
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the force of law,
based either on the constitutional powers of the presidency as chief executive or commander in chief or on
Constitutional doctrine that proposes that the executive branch is under the direct control of the president, who has all authority necessary to control the actions of federal bureaucracy per-
sonnel and units without interference from the other federal branches
A formal international agreement be-
tween two or more countries; in the
United States, requires the "advice and
consent" of the Senate
An agreement with another country signed by the president that has the force of law, like a treaty; does not require Senate approval; originally used for minor technical matters, now an
important tool of presidential power
in foreign affair
The permanent bureaucracy associated with the presidency, designed to help the incumbent of the office carry
out his responsibilities
chief of staff
A top adviser to the president who
also manages the White House staff.
national security advisor
A top foreign policy and defense adviser to the president who heads the National Security Council
Executive Office of the President
A group of organizations that advise the president on a wide range of issues; includes, among others, the
Office of Management and Budget,
the National Security Council, and
the Council of Economic Advisors
Office of Management and Budget
An organization within the Executive
Office of the President that advises on
the federal budget, domestic legisla-
tion, and regulations
Council of Economic Advisers
An organization in the Executive
Office of the President made up of a
small group of economists who advise
on economic policy.
National Security Council
An organization in the Executive Office of the President made up of
officials from the State and Defense Departments, the CIA, and the military, who advise on foreign and security affairs.
Intelligence Advisory Board
An organization in the Executive Office of the President that provides
information and assessments to the president's director of national intelligence and to the president directly
Control of the executive and the legislative branches by different political parties
presidential job approval
The percentage of Americans who believe the president is doing a good job
The totality of the departments and agencies of the executive branch of the national government
A large, complex organization characterized by a hierarchical set of offices, each with a specific task, controlled through a clear chain of command, and where appointment and advancement of personnel is based on merit
Government workers employed under the merit system; not political
Federal government jobs held by civilian employees, excluding political appointees
Generally the largest units in the executive branch, each headed by a cabinet secretary.
Generally, a subunit of a cabinet department.
A general name used for a subunit
of a cabinet department
independent executive agency
A unit of the executive branch outside
the control of executive departments.
A unit in the executive branch that
operates like a private business but
provides some public service.
An organization that has governmental powers and responsibilities but has substantial private sector control over
independent regulatory commission
An entity in the executive branch that is outside the immediate control of the president and Congress that issues rules and regulations to protect the public
An entity of the executive branch that supports the arts or sciences and is designed to be somewhat insulated from
A person who works in a bureaucratic
A method of evaluating rules and regulations by weighing their potential costs against their potential benefits
The practice of distributing government offices and contracts to the
supporters of the winning party; also called patronage.
The practice of distributing government offices and contracts to the
supporters of the winning party; also
called the spoils system
Presidential action to temporarily fill executive branch positions without the consent of the Senate; done when
Congress is adjourned
Constitutional doctrine that proposes that the executive branch is under the direct control of the president, who has all authority necessary to control the actions of federal bureaucracy personnel and units without interference from the other federal branches
Legal authority for a federal agency to spend money from the U.S. Treasury.
Turning over certain government
functions to the private sectors
Overbearing bureaucratic rules and
People who bring official misconduct in their agencies to public attention
The power of the Supreme Court to declare actions of the other
branches and levels of government unconstitutional.
The authority of a court to be the first
to hear a particular kind of case
Federal courts created by Congress under the authority of Article III of the Constitution.
Highly specialized federal courts created by Congress under the authority of Article I of the Constitution
Groups of citizens who decide
whether there is sufficient evidence to
bring an indictment against accused
petit trail juries
Juries that hear evidence and sit in
judgment on charges brought in civil
or criminal cases.
The 12 geographical jurisdictions and one special court that hear appeals from the federal district courts
Courts that hear cases on appeal from
Documents setting out the arguments in legal cases, prepared by attorneys and presented to courts
The explanation of the majority's and
the minority's reasoning that accompanies a court decision.
Past rulings by courts which guide
judicial reasoning in subsequent cases
The legal doctrine that says precedent
should guide judicial decision making
The tradition that a judicial nomination for a federal district court seat be approved by the senior senator of the president's party from the state where a district court is located before the nominee is considered by the Senate Judiciary Committee
Authority to bring legal action because one is directly affected by the
issues at hand
A presidential claim that certain communications with subordinates may be withheld from Congress and the court
separate but equal doctrine
The principle articulated in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that laws prescribing separate public facilities and services
for nonwhite Americans are permissible if the facilities and services are equal to those provided for whites
Landmark rulings that have been reaffirmed by the Court over the
course of many years and whose reasoning has become part of the fabric of American law
one who brings suit in a court
in forma pauperis
Describing a process by which indigents may file a suit with the Supreme Court free of charge.
writ of certiorari
An announcement that the Supreme
Court will hear a case on appeal from
a lower court; its issuance requires the
vote of four of the nine justice
rule of 4
An unwritten practice that requires at least four justices of the Supreme Court to agree that a case warrants review by the Court before it will hear the case.
Latin for "a friend of the court"; describes a brief in which individuals not party to a suit may have their views
opinion of the court
The majority opinion that accompanies a Supreme Court decision.
The opinion of one or more judges who vote with the majority on a case but wish to set out different reasons for their decision.
The opinion of the judge or judges who are in the minority on a particular case before the Supreme Court.
The political-economic doctrine that holds that government ought not interfere with the operations of the free market.
Actions by the courts that purportedly go beyond the role of the judiciary as interpreter of the law and adjudicator
An action that a court determines must be taken to rectify a wrong done by government.
The doctrine that the courts must interpret the Constitution in ways
consistent with the intentions of the framers rather than in light of
contemporary conditions and needs
The doctrine that the provisions of the Constitution have a clear meaning and that judges must stick closely
to this meaning when rendering decisions.
A case brought to force a ruling on the
constitutionality of some law or executive action
A suit brought on behalf of a group of people who are in a situation similar to that of the plaintiffs.
Recommended textbook explanations
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Magruder's American Government (Florida Student Edition)
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