Language Teaching Approaches
Terms in this set (24)
Grammar Translation Method
aims to make learner proficient in accessing the literature concerned and to improve mental discipline and intellectual development. It approaches the teaching of foreign second language through detailed analysis of its grammar rules and applying them to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. The mother tongue remains as the reference system in the learning of the second language. Its major focuses are the reading skill and writing skill and pay no systematic attention to speaking and listening. As far as vocabulary teaching is concerned, it is solely based on the reading text and words are taught through bilingual list. Accuracy is strongly emphasized. Grammar is taught deductively. When these .......Principles were applied in the study of different languages and text books and classroom practices are scrutinized, Language professionals and linguists criticized it on the ground of offering a tedious experience of memorizing a long list of grammatical rules and vocabulary and having no systematic approach to legitimize to its practices in the classroom.
... received its inspiration from the natural experiences of child language learning and advocated for natural language learning principles. It gave prime importance to speaking and conducted classroom instruction exclusively in the target language. Emphasizing ....and spontaneous use of the foreign language in classroom, it asked the teacher to grammatical rules inductively so they can induce them and can use them in their regular language use. The ..... was proved the gateway of Language Teaching approaches and methods. It invited the attention of linguists and language teachers who criticized the method. Among the drawbacks were told the lack of methodological basis, suited to teachers who were native speakers and native like fluency in the foreign language
Key Features of Direct Method
(1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language.
(2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.
(3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
(4) Grammar is taught inductively.
(5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice.
(6) Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
(7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.
(8) Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
Key features of Grammar-Translation Method
(1) Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
(2) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.
(3) Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.
(4) Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
(5) Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.
(6) Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
(7) Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.
(8) Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
considers that language is the system of system and a verbal behavior and it is learnt through a process of mechanical habit formation (Behaviorism) which include component like imitation, reinforcement, repetition, and condition. It believes the correct or good habits are formed through giving correct responses rather than by making mistakes. In this method, learners form new and correct linguistic habits through intensive practice, memorizing dialogues, performing pattern drills and minimize the chances of committing interference errors and mistakes in the process of learning. They are praised for correct responses, and punished for incorrect responses until they can be able to produce the correct form of sentences.
Key features of Audiolingualism
(1) New material is presented in dialog form.
(2) There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning.
(3) Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time.
(4) Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.
(5) There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.
(6) Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.
(7) There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids.
(8) Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
(9) Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted.
(10) Successful responses are immediately reinforced.
(11) There is great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances.
(12) There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT).
This method was based on communication theory of language and cognitive theory of language. It is one of the most established approaches today. Humanistic in nature, this approach aims to enhance the communicative competence of the learners based on needs analysis. It focuses on teaching four language skills i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing and concentrate systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language. It emphasizes the effective and real communication through the classroom activities and promotes creative and effective setting in the language classroom. (Chomsky)
Key features of Community Language Learning
(1) Students are to be considered as "learner-clients" and the teacher as a "teacher-councelor".
(2) A relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essential to the learning process.
(3) Students are permitted to use their native language, and are provided with translations from the teacher which they then attempt to apply.
(4) Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively.
(5) "Chunks" of target language produced by the students are recorded and later listened to - they are also transcribed with native language equivalents to become texts the students work with.
(6) Students apply the target language independently and without translation when they feel inclined / confident enough to do so.
(7) Students are encouraged to express not only how they feel about the language,but how they feel about the learning process, to which the teacher expresses empathy and understanding.
(8) A variety of activities can be included (for example, focusing on a particular grammar or pronunciation point, or creating new sentences based on the recordings/transcripts).
Total Physical Response
This method was developed around the coordination of speech and action and attempts to teach language through ..... (motor) activity. Though separately it cannot work effectively but it can complement to other methods.
Key features of Total Physical Response
(1) The teacher directs and students "act" in ..... - "The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors" (Asher, 1977:43).
(2) Listening and ...... ..... skills are emphasized over oral production.
(3) The imperative mood is the most common language function employed, even well into advanced levels. Interrogatives are also heavily used.
(4) Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners.
(5) Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally ready or confident enough to do so.
(6) Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas. Spoken language is emphasized over written language.
This method focuses to minimize TTT (Teacher Talking Time) as much as possible and defines the role of the teacher as complete dramatist who communicates things through physical actions. He encourages students to produce as much language as possible. Lack of verbal input by the teacher can hinder the efficiency of the learning experience and may not be appropriate for many learners and settings.
...also well-known for its common use of small colored rods of varying length (cuisinere rods) and color-coded word charts depicting pronunciation values, vocabulary and grammatical paradigms. It is a unique method and the first of its kind to really concentrate on cognitive principles in language learning.
Key features of Silent Way
(1) Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned.
(2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects.
(3) Learning is facilitated by problem-solving involving the material to be learned.
Reducing anxiety in the language learning setting is the basic aim of this teaching method. It aims to enhance learning by teaching students in a relaxed environment. Uses techniques as yoga, music and meditation to minimize anxiety and stress.
Key features of Suggestopedia
(1) Learning is facilitated in an environment that is as comfortable as possible, featuring soft cushioned seating and dim lighting.
(2) "Peripheral" learning is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of posters and decorations featuring the target language and various grammatical information.
(3) The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and control in the classroom.
(4) Self-perceived and psychological barriers to learners' potential to learn are "desuggested".
(5) Students are encouraged to be child-like, take "mental trips with the teacher" and assume new roles and names in the target language in order to become more "suggestible".
(6) Baroque music is played softly in the background to increase mental relaxation and potential to take in and retain new material during the lesson.
(7) Students work from lengthy dialogs in the target language, with an accompanying translation into the students' native language.
(8) Errors are tolerated, the emphasis being on content and not structure. Grammar and vocabulary are presented and given treatment from the teacher, but not dwelt on.
(9) Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialog they are studying - once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning before they get up.
(10) Music, drama and "the Arts" are integrated into the learning process as often as possible.
there should be a lot of language "acquisition" as opposed to language "processing", and there needs to be a considerable amount of comprehensible input from the teacher. Meaning is considered as the essence of language and vocabulary (not grammar) is the heart of language. Students listen to the teacher using the target language communicatively from the very beginning.
Communicative activities prevail throughout a language course employing the ...., focusing on a wide range of activities including games, roleplays, dialogs, group work and discussions. There are three generic stages identified in the approach: (1) Preproduction - developing listening skills; (2) Early Production - students struggle with the language and make many errors which are corrected based on content and not structure; (3) Extending Production - promoting fluency through a variety of more challenging activities.
Key features of Communicative Language Teaching
(1) An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
(2) The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
(3) The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also on the learning process itself.
(4) An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
(5) An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.
Types of Learning Associated with the CLT Approach
This concept goes right to the heart of communication itself, stressing the dual roles of "receiver" and "sender" in any communicative situation. Interaction creates the "negotiation between interlocutors" which in turn produces meaning (semantics). The concept of interactive learning necessarily entails that there will be a lot of pair and group work in the classroom, as well as genuine language input from the "real world" for meaningful communication.
This kind of instruction involves the giving over of some "power" in the language learning process to the learners themselves. It also strives to allow for personal creativity and input from the students, as well as taking into account their learning needs and objectives.
This concept stresses the "team" like nature of the classroom and emphasizes cooperation as opposed to competition. Students share information and help, and achieve their learning goals as a group.
This kind of learning joins language learning to content/subject matter and engages them both concurrently. Language is seen as a tool or medium for aquiring knowledge about other things, instantly proving its usefulness. An important factor in this kind of learning is that the content itself determines what language items need to be mastered, not the other way around. When students study math or science using English as the medium, they are more intrinsically motivated to learn more of the language.
This concept equates the idea of a "learning task" to a language learning technique in itself. This could be a problem solving activity or a project, but the task has a clear objective, appropriate content, a working/application procedure, and a set range of outcomes.
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
It refers to teaching subjects such as science, history and geography to students through a foreign language. This can be by the English teacher using cross-curricular content or the subject teacher using English as the language of instruction. Both methods result in the simultaneous learning of content and English. It refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focused aims, namely the learning of content, and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language".
"It provides exposure to the language without requiring extra time in the curriculum".(Marsh, 2002)
Community Language Learning
.. method does not just attempt to teach students how to use another language communicatively, it also tries to encourage the students to take increasingly more responsibility for their own learning, and to "learn about their learning", so to speak. Learning in a nondefensive manner is considered to be very important, with teacher and student regarding each other as a "whole person" where intellect and ability are not separated from feelings. The initial struggles with learning the new language are addressed by creating an environment of mutual support, trust and understanding between both learner-clients and the teacher-councelor.
..considered affective factors as paramount in the learning process.