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Chapter 3: Applied systems theory in occupational therapy
Terms in this set (41)
allows us to understand how things interact
interrelationship of multiple systems, including elements of person, environment, and occupation
idea that entities cannot be explained nor understood from their seperate parts or properties but only undderstood from their entire configuration.
living things are influenced, exist and are maintained by the following forces:
1. information or input that enters the systems
2. behaviors, thoughts and reactions called output that result from internal processing of the input
3. feedback that comes from the environment about those behaviors, thoughts, reactions and their consequeces for other parts of the system.
1. a whole that functions as a whole by virtue of the interaction of its parts
2. an entitiy that is greater than the sum of its parts because it consists of parts, the way the parts act together, and qualities that emerge from these relationships
3. anything physical, biological, psychological, sociological, or symbolic
4. an entity that can be static, mechanical, mechanically self regulating or organismically interactive with the environment
5. an entity with a hierarchy to organize its complexity.
include client and his immediate surroundings (work area, home environments, caregiver-client relationships); evaluating this is best accomplished by observing specific task performance within the client's natural environment
Proximal scale context
includes frequently encountered behavior settings (such as home, office, classroom, and clinic), the client interacts within systems of work settings, educational systems, family systems, and health care systems
Community scale context
include geographic neighborhoods and communities known to the client (transportation systems, local social and political systems, religious group systems, and economic systems such as banking and marketing)
Societal scale context
include public policies, widely held beliefs and attitudes, and major social institutions (Medicare or welfare systems, insurance systems, and national political and legal systems)
General systems theory
helps us to understand how things interact. Is utilized by MOHO in order to understand how systems theory could serve as a foundational framework for OT. We can only understand the whole by regarding its links, interactions, and processes among the parts that make up the entire system.
Focuses on the relations between the parts that connect into a whole, rather than the separate parts themselves. included the view of holism, which the antithesis of reductionism. the idea that entities cannot be explained nor understood from their separate parts or properties but only when regarded as an entire configuration. Offers an appreciation of human beings, focusing on their interdependency with one another and with the environment.
have fixed and predictable patterns that are predetermined
the components within a living system function best if they can arrange themselves to fit the situation. the internal parts of a living organism arrange themselves in "order" by cooperating together in a flexible and dynamic manner, rather than a fixed, predictable order. flexible and adaptive patterns to best suit the context of the situation.
when the context influences the order of sequence needed by internal systems to yield a certain response or outcome
are open, flexible, and capable of an adaptive response, evident when adjustments are made to fit a desired outcomes.
closed, evident when parts are lacking or incapable of rendering themselves to the desired outcome, will result in dysfunction or faulty operations.
complex systems theory
an outgrowth of general systems theory. the new science of complexity that describes emergence, adaptation, and self-organization
a method for understanding dynamic behavior of complex systems. involves the identification of multifaceted interrelationships among system components, while recognizing that not all properties of the whole can be understood through analysis.
A theory that emphasizes systems processes that produce change, even sudden, rapid change.
impact of general systems theory
appreciate the meaning of life and the interconnectedness that exists among various entities, such as the relationship between humanity and the physical environment. guides the practitioner to appreciate the complexeties of human behavior and invites the health care provider to think outside of the box.
OT practice framework
demonstrates a constructionist or postmodern philosophy of science, in which reality is "constructed dependent on context and socially based" within the systems that make up the world around us, multiple realities exist, each one emerging from the person's own subjective experience.
a variety of interrelated conditions within the surrounding the client that influence performance. in OT framework they include cultural, physical, social, personal, spiritual, temporal and virtual.
include the client and his immediate surroundings such as work area, home environments, and care-giver client relationships. can evaluate them by observing specific task performance within the client's natural environment
proximal scale contexts
includes frequently encountered behavior settings, such as home, office, classroom, and clinic. The client interacts within the systems of work settings, educational systems, family systems, and health care systems.
community scale contexts
include geographic neighborhoods and communities known to the client. clients encounter transportation systems, local social and political systems, religious group systems, and economic systems such as banking and marketing.
societal scale contexts
include public policies, widely held beliefs and attitudes, and major social institutions. clients may interact with the medicare or welfare systems, insurance systems and national political and legal systems. each context has multiple levels.
nonhuman aspects of contexts, including accessibility to and performance within environments having natural terrain, plants, animals, buildings, furniture, objects, tools or devices.
includes the availability and expectations of significant individuals, such as spouse, friends, and caregivers. also includes larger social groups that are influential in establishing norms, role expectations, and social routines.
a societal level that establishes public policy
local environments that clients frequent in the
the client's immediate living environment where daily social activities are performed with family and friends.
another way to understand social contexts. positions in society having expected responsibilities and privileges. "a set of behaviors that have some socially agreed upon function, and for which there is an expected code of norms". OT use roles as a way of organizing a client's occupations.
tasks of a given social role are performed according to the expectations of a client's social group. i.e. salesman is expected to meet a certain quota set by the organization for which he works.
1. task roles such as the initiator and recorder
2. group maintenance roles, such as energizer and harmonizer, which help the group to communicate and function as a team
3. individual roles, such as aggressor or blocker, which serve the individual member at the expense of the group.
an important dimension of social context.
customs, beliefs, activity patterns, behavioral standards, and expectations accepted by the society of which a client is a member. also includes political aspects such as laws that access to resources and affirm personal rights. also includes opportunities for education, employment, and economic support.
The fundamental orientation of a person's life; that which inspires and motivates
that individual. The experience of meaning
naturally flows from the client's perception that the occupations they are performing gives meaning to life.
features of the individual that are not a part of a health condition or health status. i.e. age, gender and socioeconomic status
a combination of household income level, place of residence, and years of education, which identify one's class or status within a given society. this part of a personal context overlaps with social and cultural contexts by categorizing persons according to specific criteria.
location of occupational performance in time, such as stages of life, time of day or year or duration
environment in which communication occurs by means of airwaves or computers and an absence of physical contact. as technology evolves, more occupations involve virtual aspects, including computers but also communicating via telephone or cell phone.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Chapter 7: MOHO
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