1 / 112
list the disaccharides in alphabetical order
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (112)
Carbohydrates are the first link in the food chain and are obtained almost exclusively from
. Through _________________
, plants combine carbon dioxide, water, and the sun's energy to form _____________
, from which the human body can obtain energy. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and
A person who complains of frequent urinary tract infections, excessive urination and thirst, slow healing of cuts, and blurred vision is most likely experiencing symptoms of _____.type 1 diabetesMany different forms of fiber exist, each with specific effects on health. The DRI intake recommendation for fiber is __________ grams per 1,000 calories. Fiber needs are best met by eating _______ plant foods, which contain a mix of fiber types; __________- fiber in large doses can have undesirable effects.14, whole, purifiedTo make sure you are choosing a whole-grain product, you should _____.look for whole grains listed as the first ingredientWhich food item would be most easily digested based on its carbohydrate content?white breadThe predominant type of diabetes is type ___________ diabetes, characterized by _________ resistance of the body's cells. In contrast, the person with type ___________ diabetes does not produce enough insulin because the person's immune system attacks the cells of the ______________- that produce it.2, insulin, 1, pancreasMost research comparing the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose to date has found virtually identical responses of the body to both.trueWhich recommendation would you make to a person with lactose intolerance?choosing yogurt with live culturesHow many grams of fiber per day do the Dietary Reference Intakes suggest for an average adult (man or women) under age 50?25 for a women; 38 for a manDigestible carbohydrates are broken down or converted into ____ inside the body.glucoseIt would be appropriate to recommend high-fiber foods to someone trying to lose weight because:fiber creates a feeling of fullness that delays hungerWhen considering the health impact of diabetes it is important to remember that _____.if poorly controlled, it can damage major organs and tissues in the bodyWhich of the following is not a polysaccharide?galactoseA person with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes has just been advised that he should begin a 2100-calorie diet with 45% of the energy coming from carbohydrate. How many grams of carbohydrate would that be?236When the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the first organ to respond is the:pancreasEating regularly timed meals with plenty of protein and whole grains will help reduce symptoms of hypoglycemia.trueWhich of the following is characteristic of type 1 diabetes?the person's immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas.Which of the following animal-derived foods contains significant amounts of carbohydrates?milkThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggest a limit of about 8 teaspoons of sugar, or almost one soft drink's worth, for a 2,200-calorie eating pattern.trueWhich of the following helps prevent type 2 diabetes?maintaining a healthy weightWhich monosaccharide rarely occurs freely in nature but is tied up in milk sugar until it is freed during digestion?galactoseWhich part of a grain is especially rich in vitamins and minerals?germThe human brain depends almost exclusively on _____ for its energy.carbohydrateYou are trying to decide which type of food from the fruit group to choose for a snack, and you want to choose the one that has the greatest nutritional value. Your best choice would be _____.a whole orangeWhen fructose and glucose are bonded together they form:table sugarWhich of the following terms would you look for on a bread label to choose the most nutritious product?whole grainGrapes and grape soda both provide sugars, but the grapes are a healthier choice because:they provide fiber and phytochemicalsWhich outcome is not an effect of fiber?promotes weight gain and feeling of fullnessThe lipids in foods and in the human body fall into _______ classes. About 95% of these lipids are ________ . Other classes of the lipid family include the phospholipids and the ________ .three, triglycerides, sterolsFat within the human body _____.is stored in adipose tissues that secrete appetite-regulaitng hormonesLecithin is an example of a _____.phospholipidWhich of the following cuts of meat is lowest in fat content?round cut witht the fat trimmed offA person who eats a diet too high in saturated fat may incur a greater-than-average risk of developing _____.heart diseaseFour useful functions of fats in foods are to a) provide a concentrated _________ source in foods; (b) provide essential fat-______ nutrients; (c) enhance food's aroma and _______ ; (d) contribute to _______- .energy, soluble, flavor, satietyFatty acids are the major constituent of ___ , which are the chief form of fat. One way in which fatty acids differ from one another is in _______ length. Another is in degree of ________ . The more unsaturated fats are soft in texture and melt more readily at ___________ temperatures.triglycerides, chain, saturation, lowerWithin the body, fats usually travel from place to place mixed with _____ particles.proteinIdentify two plant oils that are composed primarily of saturated fats, in alphabetical order. a. oil b. oilcoconut, palmThe main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol levels is _____.high saturated and trans fat intakeThe DRI committee sets recommended intakes for two types of fatty acids. List these in alphabetical order: a. acid b. acidlinoleic, linolenicTwo fatty acids, linoleic acid and ______ acid, must be supplied by the diet. They are, therefore, _______-- fatty acids. Points of unsaturation in fatty acids such as those in fish oils are vulnerable to attack by ________- in a process called oxidation. When the unsaturated points are oxidized, the oils become ___________ .linolenic, essential, oxygen, rancidWhich of the following scavenges excess cholesterol from body tissues and carries it to the liver for disposal?HDLLinolenic acid, EPA, and DHA are examples of _____.omega-3 fatty acidsCream, butter, whipped cream, sour cream, and cream cheese are best described as _____.solid ftsThe DRI Committee suggests that less than ____ percent of daily energy intake come from saturated fat. The solid fats of some foods, such as the fat that can be trimmed from a steak, are ________ while other solid fats, such as the fat in biscuits or cheeses, are not. ________fats contribute the majority of the solid fats in the U.S. diet.ten, visible, invisibleSomeone asks you whether he should reduce dietary cholesterol in an effort to prevent cardiovascular disease. What would be an appropriate response?"dietary cholesterol doesn't matter as much as saturated and trans fat intakes"Which of the following words on an ingredient list would alert you to the presence of trans fatty acids in the product?hydrogenated vegetable oilWhich statement best describes individuals who have had their gallbladder removed?bile is released directly into the small intestineWhich of the following is NOT a desirable blood lipid value?high LDLThe body stores excess energy from food as _____.triglyceridesFoods with hidden or invisible fat include:biscuitsAll of the following are found mainly in foods that contain fat except:vitamin CCooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to:retard the oxidation processWhich food contains the least healthful type of fat?salad in taco shell with chili, cheese, sour cream and salsaIf the fat in a container is solid at room temperature, what type of fat is it?saturated fatAt what location along the digestive tract does fat digestion primarily take place?small intestineThe role of bile in fat digestion is to:emulsify fats in the small intestineThe benefits of the Mediterranean diet are a result of:a combination of vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains and seafoodSome ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much higher in solid fats than lean beef.trueA quarter-pound fast-food hamburger sandwich provides 400 calories and contains 20 grams of fat. What is the percentage of calories from fat?45%Your friend Mike wants to start taking fish oil supplements. What would you recommend to your friend regarding fish oil consumption?consuming fish in conjunction with a healthy diet is recommended over taking fish oil supplementsWhich of the following is not a function of fat in the human body?carries the water-soluble nutrientsNinety-five percent of the fat we consume is in the form of _____.trigylceridesTriglycerides consist of:three fatty acids attached to a glycerolAs fatty acids are absorbed through the intestinal lining for transport throughout the body, which action takes place?large-chain fatty aids are formed into lipoproteins for transport in the blood.To replace saturated fats with monounsaturated fats in your diet, you could use _____ instead of _____.canola oil, butterApproximately what percent calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 11 grams of fat?50%A woman who is pregnant is concerned about eating fish because of its potential contamination with mercury. What would you tell her?she can select fish species that provide EPA and DHA but are low in mercury such as salmonProtein is a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and ___ atoms. Protein is made up of building blocks called ___ acids, each with a unique side chain, which make up most of the proteins of living tissue. The side chains make the amino acids differ in size, _______, and electrical charge.nitrogen, amino, shapenine essentail amino acids for adultshistidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valineWhat is the DRI for protein for a 37-year-old female who is 5'4" tall and weighs 110 pounds?40 gA strand of amino acids that makes up a protein may contain about _____ different kinds of amino acids.20Select the ways in which protein can undergo denaturation.heat, alcohol, acids, bases, salts of heavy metals and radiationOf the following foods, which one contains proteins that are best digested and absorbed?chickenDuring digestion of proteins in the stomach, or ________-, helps to uncoil the protein's strands so that the stomach enzymes can attack the peptide bonds. The stomach lining, which is made partly of ______, is protected by a coat of ________gastric acid, protein, murcusExamples of protein foods that contain ample amounts of all the essential amino acids include (a) meat; (b) ; (c) poultry; (d) ; (e) eggs; (f) milk; and (g) most products.meat, fish, poultry, cheese, eggs, milk, soybeanUnder normal circumstances, healthy adults are in _____.nitrogen equilibriumWhich of the following denatures proteins in foods?acid produced by the stomachThe stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by:a coat of mucusProteins play several important roles in the body. What is NOT one of these?providing an unlimited supply of energyYour mother is considering changing her diet to include only non-meat proteins to reduce her risk of developing heart disease or cancer. What evidence is available to support her decision?Plant-based diets are usually lower in saturated fat and higher in fiber, which reduces risk of heart disease.The variable part of an amino acid is the _____.side chainPoorly-planned vegetarian diets typically lack all of the following except:folateAmino acids are "wasted" (not used to build protein or nitrogen-containing compounds) in the body whenever there is:too much dietary proteinRemoving the grain protein gluten from the diet has been shown to:resolve digestive problems in people with celiac diseaseHeavy use of soy products in place of meat can inhibit absorption of what nutrient?ironThe most easily digestible form of protein can be found in which of the following foods?eggsWhich of the following is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or fat?nitrogenWhich of the following is NOT a consequence of protein deficiency?increased nutrient absorption from the digestive tractProteins can be denatured by all of the following EXCEPT _____.freezingThe DRI Committee recommends _____ percent of total calories as the minimum amount of protein.10Of the following foods, which one contains proteins that are best digested and absorbed?chickenThe more animal protein you eat, the higher your intake of _____.vitamin B12Which of the following is a protein catalyst, which facilitates chemical reactions?ENZYMEA sedentary male college student aged 23 needs how much protein if he weighs 175 pounds?64g/dayWhen amino acids are degraded for energy, their amine groups are stripped off and used elsewhere or incorporated by the liver into:ureaAn adolescent girl has decided to adhere to a vegetarian diet and has selected a tossed green salad, whole-wheat crackers, and apple juice for lunch. What would you advise her about her complementary protein sources?Adding garbanzo beans to her salad would provide the protein combination she needs.The strategy of combining two _____ plant protein sources permits the amino acids in one food to make up for those lacking in the other food.complementaryA(n) ____ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.peptideFor athletes, the path to bigger muscles includesvigorous physical training with balanced nutritionWhich statement is true of a vegan diet?Very young children may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue.Negative nitrogen balance occurs in:a surgery patientWhich of the following food groups does not provide significant protein?fruitsAn athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because:the body uses excess amino acids as fuel or stores them as fat