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BIO Chapter 7
Terms in this set (59)
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT ________.
B) a cell wall
C) a plasma membrane
E) an endoplasmic reticulum
(E) an endoplasmic reticulum
In a bacterium, we will find DNA in ________.
A) a membrane-enclosed nucleus
C) the endoplasmic reticulum
D) the nucleoid
(D) the nucleoid
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
E) nucleic acids
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
C) nuclear envelope
Which of the following is NOT found in a prokaryote?
B) a cell wall
C) a mitochondrion
D) a plasma membrane
(C) a mitochondrion
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved ________.
A) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
B) anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen-the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts
C) an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolving into the nucleus
D) acquisition of an endomembrane system and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi apparatus
(A) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
The nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of the nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would you most likely expect to be the immediate consequence?
A) the loss of all nuclear function
B) the inability of the nucleus to divide during cell division
C) a change in the shape of the nucleus
D) failure of chromosomes to carry genetic information
E) inability of the ribosomes to produce proteins
(C) a change in the shape of the nucleus
A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely ________.
A) primarily producing proteins for secretion
B) primarily producing proteins in the cytosol
C) constructing an extensive cell wall or extracellular matrix
D) digesting large food particles
E) enlarging its vacuole
(B) primarily producing proteins in the cytosol
Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E) contractile vacuole
(C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
A) rough ER
D) Golgi vesicles
E) free cytoplasmic ribosomes
(A) rough ER
The Golgi apparatus has a polarity, or sidedness, to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?
A) Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.
B) Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
C) Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
D) Soluble proteins in the cisternae (interior) of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
E) All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.
(E) All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.
Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
A) the endoplasmic reticulum
B) the Golgi apparatus
C) the lysosome
E) membrane-bound ribosomes
(C) the lysosome
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and, therefore, abundant in liver cells?
A) rough ER
B) smooth ER
C) Golgi apparatus
D) nuclear envelope
E) transport vesicles
(B) smooth ER
Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
D) Golgi apparatus
(D) Golgi apparatus
Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?
D) Golgi apparatus
Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
D) Golgi apparatus
Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?
D) Golgi apparatus
Which plant cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
D) Golgi apparatus
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in ________.
In a plant cell, DNA may be found ________.
A) only in the nucleus
B) only in the nucleus and mitochondria
C) only in the nucleus and chloroplasts
D) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
E) in the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes
(D) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from ________.
A) a bacterium
B) an animal but not a plant
C) nearly any eukaryotic organism
D) a plant but not an animal
E) any kind of prokaryotic organism
(C) nearly any eukaryotic organism
When a potassium ion (K+) moves from the soil into the vacuole of a cell on the surface of a root, it must pass through several cellular structures. Which of the following correctly describes the order in which these structures will be encountered by the ion?
A) plasma membrane → primary cell wall → cytoplasm → vacuole
B) secondary cell wall → plasma membrane → primary cell wall → cytoplasm → vacuole
C) primary cell wall → plasma membrane → cytoplasm → vacuole
D) primary cell wall → plasma membrane → lysosome → cytoplasm → vacuole
E) primary cell wall → plasma membrane → cytoplasm → secondary cell wall → vacuole
(C) primary cell wall → plasma membrane → cytoplasm → vacuole
Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?
A) in the extracellular matrix
B) in the Golgi apparatus
C) in lysosomes
D) in mitochondria
E) in the nucleolus
(D) in mitochondria
A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, whereas organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively, ________.
A) mitochondria and chloroplasts
B) chloroplasts and peroxisomes
C) peroxisomes and chloroplasts
D) chloroplasts and mitochondria
E) mitochondria and peroxisomes
(D) chloroplasts and mitochondria
Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
B) wall made of cellulose
C) central vacuole
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the ________.
E) endoplasmic reticulum
Why is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum unable to synthesize proteins?
A) No ribosomes are attached to its surface.
B) There is no supply of free amino acids that it can easily access.
C) It stores calcium, which is a known inhibitor of protein synthesis.
D) It has no DNA to direct synthesis of proteins.
(A) No ribosomes are attached to its surface.
A cell with an extensive area of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to ________.
A) play a role in storage
B) synthesize large quantities of lipids
C) actively export protein molecules
D) import and export protein molecules
(B) synthesize large quantities of lipids
Lysosomes are considered to be part of the endomembrane system because they ________.
A) deposit end-products of digestion in the endoplasmic reticulum
B) facilitate movement between stacks of the Golgi
C) are formed from products synthesized by the endoplasmic reticulum and processed by the Golgi
D) are composed largely of phospholipids
(C) are formed from products synthesized by the endoplasmic reticulum and processed by the Golgi
Which of the following is a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
A) Prokaryotes have cells but eukaryotes do not.
B) Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes.
C) Prokaryotes are not able to carry out aerobic respiration, relying instead on anaerobic metabolism.
D) Prokaryotes are generally larger than eukaryotes.
(B) Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes.
Suppose a young boy is always tired and fatigued, suffering from a metabolic disease. Which of the following organelles is most likely involved in this disease?
B) Golgi apparatus
When yeast cells are transferred from anaerobic to aerobic growth conditions, which of these organelles become much more numerous?
B) Golgi apparatus
An organism with a cell wall would most likely be unable to take in materials through ________.
C) active transport
E) facilitated diffusion
A primary objective of cell fractionation (including differential centrifugation) is to ________.
A) view the structure of cell membranes
B) sort cells based on their size and weight
C) determine the size of various organelles
D) separate the major organelles
E) separate lipid-soluble from water-soluble molecules
(D) separate the major organelles
Which of the following macromolecules leaves the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell through pores in the nuclear membrane?
B) amino acids
What can you infer about a high-molecular-weight protein that cannot be transported into the nucleus?
A) It is too large.
B) It lacks a nuclear localization signal (NLS).
C) It contains errors in its amino acid sequence.
D) It lacks a signal sequence.
(B) It lacks a nuclear localization signal (NLS).
What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in eukaryotes?
A) It regulates the movement of proteins and RNAs into and out of the nucleus.
B) It synthesizes the proteins required to copy DNA and make mRNA.
C) It selectively transports molecules out of the nucleus but prevents all inbound molecules from entering the nucleus.
D) It assembles ribosomes from raw materials that are synthesized in the nucleus.
(A) It regulates the movement of proteins and RNAs into and out of the nucleus.
The difference in lipid and protein composition between the membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by the ________.
A) interconnection of most intracellular membranes to the nuclear envelope
B) transportation of membrane lipids among the membranes of the endomembrane system by small membrane vesicles
C) function of the Golgi apparatus in sorting and directing membrane components
D) modification of the membrane components once they reach their final destination
E) synthesis of different lipids and proteins in each of the organelles of the endomembrane system
(C) function of the Golgi apparatus in sorting and directing membrane components
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
A) ER → Golgi → nucleus
B) Golgi → ER → lysosome
C) nucleus → ER → Golgi
D) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
E) ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
(D) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
Proteins coded for by nuclear DNA but found within mitochondria move from the cytoplasm into mitochondria using ________.
A) signal sequences (peptides)
B) random transport vesicles
C) attachment of ribosomes to outer mitochondrial pores and direct deposition into the inner mitochondrial compartment
D) mRNAs that are manufactured in the nucleus but translated by mitochondrial ribosomes
(A) signal sequences (peptides)
Scientists have found that polypeptides which are normally synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum are about 20 amino acids longer when they are synthesized by ribosomes not attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. What is a possible explanation for the greater length of these polypeptides?
A) Ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum require fewer amino acids to function.
B) The 20 amino acids serve as a signal (peptide) sequence that directs the forming polypeptides to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they are cleaved off during processing.
C) The 20-amino-acid sequence helps the endoplasmic reticulum package these proteins for shipping to the Golgi.
D) The protein has a different function in the cytosol than in the endoplasmic reticulum.
(B) The 20 amino acids serve as a signal (peptide) sequence that directs the forming polypeptides to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they are cleaved off during processing.
Lysosomes that lack mannose-6-phosphate receptors ________.
A) receive "modified" enzymes and are thus unable to break down carbohydrates
B) do not receive enzyme shipments from the Golgi apparatus
C) have unstable membranes
D) stick to transport vesicles and impede the transfer of enzymes
(B) do not receive enzyme shipments from the Golgi apparatus
Asbestos is a material that was once used extensively in construction. One risk from working in a building that contains asbestos is the development of asbestosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Cells will phagocytize asbestos but are not able to degrade it. As a result, asbestos fibers accumulate in ________.
In receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor molecules initially project to the outside of the cell. Where do they end up after endocytosis?
A) on the outside of vesicles
B) on the inside surface of the cell membrane
C) on the inside surface of the vesicle
D) on the outer surface of the nucleus
E) on the ER
(C) on the inside surface of the vesicle
Eukaryotic cells manufacture cytoskeletal proteins, which help to maintain cell shapes and functions. What would you predict about these proteins?
A) They initially contain signal sequences that allow their entrance into the endoplasmic reticulum.
B) They are manufactured on free ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
C) They are glycosylated in the Golgi apparatus.
D) They travel to the nucleus in a transport vesicle with a specific signal.
(B) They are manufactured on free ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
A) mitochondria and chloroplasts
B) membrane proteins of the inner nuclear envelope
C) free ribosomes and ribosomes attached to the ER
D) components of the cytoskeleton
E) cellulose fibers in the cell wall
(D) components of the cytoskeleton
Movement of vesicles within the cell depends on what cellular structures?
A) microtubules and motor proteins
B) actin filaments and microtubules
C) actin filaments and ribosomes
D) centrioles and motor proteins
E) actin filaments and motor proteins
(A) microtubules and motor proteins
Which of the following correctly matches a component of the cytoskeleton to one of its functions?
A) Microfilaments form the nuclear lamina.
B) Microtubules help animal cells divide in two.
C) Microfilaments cause ciliary bending.
D) Intermediate filaments contribute to cytoplasmic streaming.
E) Microtubules move chromosomes.
(E) Microtubules move chromosomes.
Centrioles, cilia, flagella, and basal bodies have remarkably similar structural elements and arrangements. Which of the following hypotheses is most plausible in light of such structural similarities?
A) Cilia and flagella arise from centrioles.
B) Loss of basal bodies should prevent cells from dividing in two.
C) Motor proteins such as dynein must have evolved before any of these four kinds of structure.
D) Cilia and flagella evolved separately in the same ancestral eukaryotic organism.
E) Natural selection for cell motility repeatedly selected for microtubular arrays in circular patterns in the evolution of each of these structures.
(A) Cilia and flagella arise from centrioles.
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is TRUE?
A) The cytoskeleton of eukaryotes is a static structure most resembling scaffolding used at construction sites.
B) Although microtubules are common within a cell, actin filaments are rarely found outside of the nucleus.
C) Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other.
D) Chemicals that block the assembly of the cytoskeleton would have little effect on a cell's response to external stimuli.
E) The cytoskeleton is produced by transport vesicles of the endomembrane system.
(C) Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other.
Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?
D) intermediate filaments
E) secretory vesicles
Actin filaments have polarity. This means that the two ends can be identified due to structural differences. The plus end is the end to which subunits are added more rapidly, or the end of polymerization. Which of the following would enable you to identify the plus end of actin filaments?
A) adding radiolabeled actin subunits to a mixture of actin filaments in which conditions are favorable for polymerization
B) adding radiolabeled actin subunits to a mixture of actin filaments in which conditions favor depolymerization
C) determining the ionic charge of the ends of the actin filaments
(A) adding radiolabeled actin subunits to a mixture of actin filaments in which conditions are favorable for polymerization
Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which involves ________.
A) growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane
B) setting up microtubule extensions that vesicles can follow in the movement of cytoplasm
C) reinforcing the pseudopod with intermediate filaments
D) cytoplasmic streaming
(A) growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane
Researchers tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?
A) an axon
B) contractile microfilaments
C) endoplasmic reticulum
D) motor proteins
(D) motor proteins
How is the structure of kinesin related to its function?
A) Kinesin has two intertwined polypeptides that make up the stalk and enable it to contract and shorten.
B) Kinesin has a tail region that binds to vesicles and two heads that can attach to microtubules.
C) The kinesin tail has an ATP binding site to fuel its activities.
D) Kinesin has two heads to attach to the vesicle being moved and a tail region that attaches to microtubules.
(B) Kinesin has a tail region that binds to vesicles and two heads that can attach to microtubules.
Motor proteins require energy in the form of ATP. ATP hydrolysis results in a conformational change that allows the protein to move along microtubular tracks (pathways). What structural component of the motor protein contains the ATP binding site and, therefore, changes shape to enable movement?
A) the portion of the molecule that binds to the vesicle being transported
B) the stalk
C) the portion of the molecule that binds to the microtubular track along which the vesicle is being transported
D) a location midway between the vesicle binding site and the portion of the molecule that binds to microtubular tracks
(C) the portion of the molecule that binds to the microtubular track along which the vesicle is being transported
Cilia and flagella bend because of ________.
A) conformational changes in ATP that thrust microtubules laterally
B) a motor protein called radial spokes
C) the quick inward movements of water by osmosis
D) a motor protein called dynein
(D) a motor protein called dynein
Which structure—function pair is mismatched?
A) nucleolus—production of ribosomal subunits
B) lysosome—intracellular digestion
C) ribosome—protein synthesis
D) Golgi—protein trafficking
E) microtubule—muscle contraction
(E) microtubule—muscle contraction
Spherocytosis is a human blood disorder associated with a defective cytoskeletal protein in the red blood cells (RBCs). What do you suspect is the consequence of such a defect?
A) abnormally shaped RBCs
B) an insufficient supply of ATP in the RBCs
C) an insufficient supply of oxygen-transporting proteins in the RBCs
D) adherence of RBCs to blood vessel walls, causing plaque formation
(A) abnormally shaped RBCs
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