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1 in 800 chance of being born with a congenital anomaly. This statistic refers to the:


Checkup or physical examination

secondary prevention

At your health screening, you describe the following: achiness, lethargy and vague abdominal discomfort. these are categorized as:


The study of functional alterations in human health because of an injury, disease, or syndrome describes which of the following?


A patient wants to know what has caused his illness. this information is termed the:


Joe has many risk factors for the development of lung cancer. Which of these is not modifiable?

family history of lung cancer

which of the following terms indicates the dynamic steady state that the body strives to achieve everyday?


Which of the following contributes to evidence based practice and high-quality patient care?

All of these contribute (primary research, clinical expertise, meta-analysis studies)

Cancer is on the rise across the globe. Which term describes this phenomenon?


Your grandmother is diagnosed with congestive heart failure and is told that she has 6 months to live. This prediction is referred to as her:


The organelle that is involved in cellular respiration and is linked to the development of oxidative stress is known as the :


cell develop into tissues with specialized structure and function through the process of:


the cell's typical response to a decrease in trophic signal is:


Cell death by necrosis is:

often a responses to inflammation

You are caring for a female patient who has reported a noticeable decrease in breast size and muscle mass. Which of the following conditions and causes is the most likely explanation?


The changes seen in cells adapting to stressors that promote metaplasia:

changes from one cell type to another

Cellular atrophy results in:

decrease in tissue volume due to decrease in cell size

Treatment of chronic conditions associated with cerebral atrophy:

are targeted toward slowing neuronal injury and atrophy

Which of the following hormones is secreted from the anterior pituitary?

Growth hormone

Which one of the following is a diagnostic test for cervical dysplasia?

cervical punch biopsy

which of the following reactive oxygen species is scavenged by catalase?

hydrogen peroxide

which of the following terms describes cells that are enlarged, with darkened nuclei, and abnormal chromatin?


You get a paper cut and experience pain at the site. This response is related to:

Increase exudate and chemical mediators at the site

Inflammation is ultimately needed to:

Prepare the site for healing

A wound is 6 cm X 4 cm X 4 cm, A wound with these dimensions needs to heal through

secondary intentions

A major difference between the acute and chronic inflammatory response is that in chronic inflammation:

Granulomas form around certain invaders

Which is not a local manifestation of acute inflammation?


Depth of injury is important t determine with burns. You are in the sun too long without sunscreen and develop redness and blistering on your face, chest, and back. What depth of burn did you experience?

deep partial thickness burn

The hospitalized burn patient wants to know why you need to remove his dressings every day. It is painful and he wants to avoid uncovering his burn injury. You explain that removing the dressings promotes:


What is the one definitive test to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis?

one test is not definitive

which of the following is the most common cause of acute gastritis?

Ingestion of aspirin, alcohol, or other chemicals

Why is Crohn disease more likely to cause intestinal obstruction than ulcerative colitis?

Crohn disease causes granulomas to form in the submucosal layer

During flu season, you get exposed to the influenza virus. Which component of your immune system will be the first to respond to this foreign pathogen?


The following season, you are concerned about getting the flu again. Which of the following statements is true?

Vaccination for prevalent strains of influenza virus can provide improved protection against the disease.

Immune suppression in AIDS is related to:

decreased lymphocyte count

Which of the following conditions represents pathologic responses caused by immunologic memory?


the pathology related to systemic lupus erythematosus is due to:

Immune complex deposition

Immunodeficiency is the results of:

failure of host defense mechanisms

A hypersensitivity reaction resulting from a yellow jacket sting is an example of:

Type 1, immediate hypersensitivity reaction

A hypersensitivity reaction resulting from complement activation due to insoluble antigen-antibody deposition is an example of:

Type III, immune complex reaction

Autoimmunity may be triggered by which one of the following?

close resemblance between foreign and self-antigen

Treatment of an altered immune response with cortisosteroids is associated with which one of the following adverse effects?

Loss of bone mineral

The transfer of secretory IgA from mother to infant during breast feeding is an example of:

passive transport

which of the following is true regarding cytotoxic T lymphocytes?

Recognize the MHC class I-antigen complex

Which of the following are considered antigen presenting cells?

Dendritic cells

Which of the following markers identifies a nucleated body cell?


which of the following is true regarding pharmacologic treatment for AIDS?

drugs are used to inhibit HIV replication

You are looking to break the chain of infection by washing your hands frequently as you provide care for patients. which of the following links in the chain will be broken by this activity?

mode of transmission

which of the following may make a person more susceptible to getting an infection?

final exam week

the feeling that "something is not quite right" is considered which stage in infection?


Which of the following clinical manifestations is not typically found with inflammation but is more characteristic of a bacterial infection?

purulent exudate

a white blood cell differential shows an increase in the number of monocytes and macrophages in the blood. This is typically means that

this is a chronic infection

Given the mode of transmission for influenza, how would you break the chain of infection and prevent spread?

wear a mask

what aspects of bacterial activity would be effective targets for pharmacologic treatment?

hepatitis B surface antigen (HBcAg)

What is the most likely complication of an untreated UTI?


Treatment for tinea unguium must include?

pral antifungals

which of the following scenarios is most likely in the CSF of a patient with bacterial meningitis?

CSF has high neutrophil count and high protein count

A person's phenotype can be best described as:

Treats that are obserbable or appatent

A person's genotype can be best described as:

the genetic makeup of an individual

which of these conditions follows a Mendalian pattern of recessive inheritance?

Tay-Sachs disease

Which of these conditions follows a multifactorial pattern of inheritance?

Coronary artery disease

Fortification of foods with folic acid has resulted in significant reduction in the incidence of:

neural tube defects

which of the following chromosomal abnormalities can result in an inheritable form of trisomy?

balanced translocation

which of the following hemoglobin types is produced during sickle cell crisis?

balanced translocation

which one of the following hemoglobin types is produced during sickle cell crisis?


Mitochondrial gene disorders are transmitted to:

both daughters and sons

mitochondrial genes produce proteins involved in:

energy metabolism

which of the following is a manifestation of Down syndrome?

epicanthal eye folds

which prenatal test(s) diagnose Down syndrome?


what is the risk of a mother with the genetic mutation that causes Fragile X syndrome passing the gene on to offspring?

50% of males affected

which of the following chromosomal anomalies is incompatible with life?

monosomy 21

which one of the following conditions affects females only?

turner syndrome

the target of damage in Huntington disease is:

nerve tissue

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is a screening test for which of the following conditions?

spinal bifida

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