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Sails westward for Spain; after the Reconquista, Landed on "San Salvador", miscalculated the circumference at around 18,750 miles
Set up the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the globe between Portugal (east) and Spain (West)
cartographer aboard an expedition to Brazil, Convinced the land "discovered" was a New World - Mundus Novus, Names the new land "America
Sailed past southernmost point of S. Am. (Strait of last name), Expedition was 1st to circumnavigate the globe, 5 ships and 280 men
Ferdinand & Isabella
unite Catholic lands, start Reconquista to drive Moors out, which hurts Spain financially
promoted Bible-focused theology; wanted separation of Church & state; "Lollards" were persecuted (1300s); translates Bible into English (from Latin)
The Praise of Folly (1511); criticized Catholic church; too ceremonial, lacking in spirituality
The Unwitting Revolutionary, created 95 theses, faith is key to salvation, banished at Diet of Worms, prints Bible in German, against peasant revolt
forms Anglican Church after being denied annulment, supreme head of the Church of England, grants land to nobles as a bribe, remained true to most Catholic teachings, married 6 times
Spread reformation outside borders of the Holy Roman Empire, Rejected anything not literally in the Bible
Concluded faith was a gift from God (pre-destination) - God saved only the elect, Faith & virtue = results of salvation (≠ causes), Catholic Church = evil; should be destroyed, Puritanical - pure, simple services & churches
Ignatius de Loyola
Founder of the Jesuits, stressed good deeds, spread Christianity around the globe
Inherits Habsburg lands, neglected expanding farming & industries ... very high inflation ruins economy over time
English, supports Dutch (defensive - Spain may have attacked if they won), involved in major event in the water
inherits throne; converts to Catholicism ... "Paris is worth a Mass", creates Edict of Nantes, which creates freedom of religion; full civil rights; fortify cities
Sought to unite Japan, Equips army with guns, captures Kyoto, eventually controlled ½ of Japan;defeated
Military genius, Wins allegiance of daimyo, National survey - taxes, Expels missionaries,"Sword Hunt", Attempts to conquer Korea
Becomes shogun by force (can't become emperor because its a holy position, but gives shogun more power), forced daimyo to swear loyalty, created Great Peace of First Name, which prevents daimyo revolt
established military and political supremacy of the Br. East India Co. throughout India
Shah Abbas I
height of Safavid power; expanded lands, made several reforms, forced Shi'ah Islam on people
military leader; deposes the last Safavid emperor, sacks Dehli, sends Mughal Empire into disarray
Muhammad ibn abd-al Wahhab
created Wahhabism, which was a strict Sunni branch of Islam that said Allah alone should be worshipped
King Afonso I
leader of Kongo kingdom, converts to Catholocism, allies with the Dutch before being defeated by the Portuguese
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