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Adding more, just wanted to get it out there in a preliminary state. I'll finish in the next 20 minutes.

Johannes Gutenberg

first movable-type printing press

John Harrison

perfected the chronometer/determined longitude

Prince Henry the Navigator

founded a navigation school

Ottoman Turks

sacked Constantinople (Istanbul)

Bartholomeu Dias

sailed around the Cape of Good Hope

Christopher Columbus

Sails westward for Spain; after the Reconquista, Landed on "San Salvador", miscalculated the circumference at around 18,750 miles

The Pope

Set up the Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the globe between Portugal (east) and Spain (West)

Vasco da Gama

Direct route to India (greatest seafaring feat of the time)

Amerigo Vespucci

cartographer aboard an expedition to Brazil, Convinced the land "discovered" was a New World - Mundus Novus, Names the new land "America

Ferdinand Magellan

Sailed past southernmost point of S. Am. (Strait of last name), Expedition was 1st to circumnavigate the globe, 5 ships and 280 men

Hernan Cortes

destroys Aztec capital city (Tenochtitlán)

Francisco Pizarro

studied conquerer of Aztecs, seizes Inca Empire (Peru) for Spain

Ferdinand & Isabella

unite Catholic lands, start Reconquista to drive Moors out, which hurts Spain financially

John Wyclif

promoted Bible-focused theology; wanted separation of Church & state; "Lollards" were persecuted (1300s); translates Bible into English (from Latin)

Desidarius Erasmus

The Praise of Folly (1511); criticized Catholic church; too ceremonial, lacking in spirituality

Thomas More

Utopia (1516; "nowhere"); "perfect" society; property divided equally; no greed

Martin Luther

The Unwitting Revolutionary, created 95 theses, faith is key to salvation, banished at Diet of Worms, prints Bible in German, against peasant revolt

Charles V

Banished person opposed to Church at Diet of Worms

Johann Tetzel

Sold indulgences, main person person against selling indulgences opposed

Henry VIII

forms Anglican Church after being denied annulment, supreme head of the Church of England, grants land to nobles as a bribe, remained true to most Catholic teachings, married 6 times

Huldrych Zwingli

Spread reformation outside borders of the Holy Roman Empire, Rejected anything not literally in the Bible

John Calvin

Concluded faith was a gift from God (pre-destination) - God saved only the elect, Faith & virtue = results of salvation (≠ causes), Catholic Church = evil; should be destroyed, Puritanical - pure, simple services & churches

Ignatius de Loyola

Founder of the Jesuits, stressed good deeds, spread Christianity around the globe

Philip II

Inherits Habsburg lands, neglected expanding farming & industries ... very high inflation ruins economy over time

Elizabeth I

English, supports Dutch (defensive - Spain may have attacked if they won), involved in major event in the water


French Calvinist

Henry IV

inherits throne; converts to Catholicism ... "Paris is worth a Mass", creates Edict of Nantes, which creates freedom of religion; full civil rights; fortify cities

Oda Nobunaga

Sought to unite Japan, Equips army with guns, captures Kyoto, eventually controlled ½ of Japan; defeated

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Military genius, Wins allegiance of daimyo, National survey - taxes, Expels missionaries,"Sword Hunt", Attempts to conquer Korea

Tokugawa Ieyasu

Becomes shogun by force (can't become emperor because its a holy position, but gives shogun more power), forced daimyo to swear loyalty, created Great Peace of First Name, which prevents daimyo revolt

Robert Clive

established military and political supremacy of the Br. East India Co. throughout India

Shah Abbas I

height of Safavid power; expanded lands, made several reforms, forced Shi'ah Islam on people

Nadir Shah

military leader; deposes the last Safavid emperor, sacks Dehli, sends Mughal Empire into disarray

Muhammad ibn abd-al Wahhab

created Wahhabism, which was a strict Sunni branch of Islam that said Allah alone should be worshipped

Suleyman the Magnificent

height of Ottoman power, defeated at Vienna

Sultan Selim III

created the Ottoman westernization

King Afonso I

leader of Kongo kingdom, converts to Catholocism, allies with the Dutch before being defeated by the Portuguese


first female leader of Ndongo (Angola), males dressed up as women under her, allies with the Dutch before being defeated by the Portuguese

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