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Stayer: Chapter 8: MQs and BPQs

Terms in this set (17)

• Both Korea and Vietnam achieved political
independence while participating fully in the tribute
system as vassal states. Japan was never conquered
by the Chinese but did participate for some of its
history in the tribute system as a vassal state.
• The cultural elite of Korea, Vietnam, and
Japan borrowed heavily from China—Confucianism,
Daoism, Buddhism, administrative techniques, the
examination system, artistic and literary styles—
even as their own cultures remained distinct.
• Both Korea and Vietnam experienced some
colonization by ethnic Chinese settlers.
• Unlike Korea or Japan, the cultural heartland
of Vietnam was fully incorporated into the Chinese
state for over a thousand years, far longer than
corresponding parts of Korea. This political
dominance led to cultural changes in Vietnam, such
as the adoption of Chinese-style irrigated agriculture,
the education of the Vietnamese elite in Confucian based
schools and their inclusion in the local
bureaucracy, Chinese replacing the local language in
official business, and the adoption of Chinese
clothing and hairstyles.
• Unlike Korea or Vietnam, Japan was
physically separated from China, and thus its
adoption of elements of Chinese civilization from the
seventh to the ninth centuries was wholly voluntary.
The high point of that cultural borrowing occurred
when the first Japanese state emerged and
deliberately sought to transform Japan into a
centralized bureaucratic state on the Chinese model.
In doing so, Japan voluntarily embraced, among
other things, a Chinese-style emperor, Buddhism,
Confucianism, Chinese court and governmental
structures, and the Chinese calendar. But because the
adoptions were voluntary, the Japanese could be
selective. By the tenth century, Japan's tribute
missions to China stopped. In the long run, Japanese
political, religious, literary, and artistic cultures
evolved in distinctive ways despite much borrowing
from China. Korea, Vietnam, and Japan resisted
some Chinese cultural influences. Korea and
Vietnam resisted militarily Chinese political
domination.