Terms in this set (60)
The study of mental activity and behavior, which are based on brain processes.
comparing what you already know with the information you are given in order to decide whether you agree with it
Critical Thinking Steps
1. What am I being asked to believe or accept?
2. What evidence is provided to support the claim?
3. What are the most reasonable conclusions?
A concept developed by Charles Darwin to explain the ways in which animals adapt to their environments
Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
The study of how people think, learn, and remember.
A clinical viewpoint emphasizing human ability, growth, potential, and free will.
Nature vs. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis ie: Neurochemistry, Brain System, Genetics and
explore the links between brain and mind
Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning
Connects the brain and spinal cord
The scientific study of heredity
of, affecting, or arising in the mind; related to the mental and emotional state of a person.
Perception & Cognition
thoughts, actions, behaviors in different societies and cultural groups
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Types of Descriptive Research
case study, survey, naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
an interview or questionnaire in which a person reports his or her attitudes, feelings, and behaviors
an observation technique in which one person or group is studied in depth in the hopes of revealing universal principles
the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
variable that is manipulated
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
concerned with the links between biology and behavior
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
transmission of info between neurons occurs across synapse
space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron using chemical messages
The chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrites of a receiving neuron
Connects the brain and spinal cord
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration (breathing)
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement - executive functioning
receives sensory input for touch and body position (spacial)
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
Awareness of ourselves and our environment
based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions
not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts
Types of consciousness
Simultaneously processing on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
aware of and responding to one's surroundings; awake.
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
When might selective attention be dangerous?
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