60 terms

Psychology

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Psychology
The study of mental activity and behavior, which are based on brain processes.
Critical Thinking
comparing what you already know with the information you are given in order to decide whether you agree with it
Critical Thinking Steps
1. What am I being asked to believe or accept?
2. What evidence is provided to support the claim?
3. What are the most reasonable conclusions?
Evolutionary
A concept developed by Charles Darwin to explain the ways in which animals adapt to their environments
Psychoanalytic
Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
Behaviorism
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
Cognitive Psychology
The study of how people think, learn, and remember.
Humanistic Psychology
A clinical viewpoint emphasizing human ability, growth, potential, and free will.
Nature vs. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
Biopsychosocial Approach
integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis ie: Neurochemistry, Brain System, Genetics and
Biological
explore the links between brain and mind
Neurochemistry
Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning
Brain System
Connects the brain and spinal cord
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
Psychological Individual
of, affecting, or arising in the mind; related to the mental and emotional state of a person.
Interpersonal Behavior
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Individual Differences
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Perception & Cognition
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Behavior
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Social
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Social Cognition
-Interpersonal Behavior
-Social Cognition
Cultural
thoughts, actions, behaviors in different societies and cultural groups
Scientific Method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
Theory
a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Types of Descriptive Research
case study, survey, naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Self Reports
an interview or questionnaire in which a person reports his or her attitudes, feelings, and behaviors
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person or group is studied in depth in the hopes of revealing universal principles
Correlational Research
the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
Experimental Research
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
Independent Variable
variable that is manipulated
Control Group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
Experimental Group
the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested
Dependent Variable
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
Random Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Biological Perspective
concerned with the links between biology and behavior
Neurons
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
Neural Communication
transmission of info between neurons occurs across synapse
Synapse
space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron using chemical messages
Neurotransmitters
The chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrites of a receiving neuron
Brain Stem
Connects the brain and spinal cord
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Reticular Formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Medulla
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration (breathing)
Cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Cerebral Cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Frontal Lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement - executive functioning
Parietal Lobe
receives sensory input for touch and body position (spacial)
Occipital Lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
Temporal Lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
Consciousness
Awareness of ourselves and our environment
Subjective
based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions
Objective
not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts
Types of consciousness
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Dual Processing
Simultaneously processing on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Conscious
aware of and responding to one's surroundings; awake.
Unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Selective Attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
When might selective attention be dangerous?
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