Psychology Theorists

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Learning is developing a response to a stimulus that did not originally call for that responseClassical ConditioningYou must be ready to learnLaw of ReadinessPositive responses to action encourage students to repeat the action while negative responses will make them less likely to repeat it.Law of EffectAnything you practice you will be able to learnLaw of ExerciseLearning is a result of associating a stimuls with a responseThorndikeBehaviorismWatsonYor environment makes you what you will becomeBehaviorismFollower of John Lock, Tabula RosaWatsonScience of psychology must be based only on obserable behaviorBehaviorismAll learning is a direct result of ones environmentBehaviorism1. ____ human behavior is learned 2. ______ is the result of conditioning 3 Permanent learning results from ______ contiguous assoctiations 4. Man is nothing more than an ______1. All 2. Learning 3. frequent 4. animalGestalt PsychologyWertheimerWho said Learning takes place through insight?WertheimerWhat philosophy states the whole is different than the sum of the parts?Gestalt PsychologyWhole or patternGestaltThings that are close together tend to form a groupproximitythings that are similar tend to form a groupsimilaritylines which enclose a surface tend to be seen as agroupclosed formwe tend to explain what we see in the simplest form possiblecontinuitythings that move together at the same timein a similar movement tend to appear as onecommon movementthe ablity to view something that looks alike but is incomplete and to be able to conceptualize the rest of the pictureclosurebasis sight learning (look say/ and whole language)GestaltContiguous ConditioningGuthrieWho said Learning takes place on the first try? What was his theory?Guthrie Contiguous ConditioningName the theorist and theory for: Learning takes place by contiguous associations. Rewards and reinforcement are not necessary for learningGuthrie, Contiguous conditioningName the three neobehavioralist theorists discussed in classGuthrie, Hull, TollmanMathmatical Learning TheoryHullSystematic BehaviorTheoryHullPushing process that energizes the learner into actionDrive TheoryName the theorist and theory for: The foundation of learning is habit formationClark Hull, Systematic Behavior TheoryAccording to the systematic behavior theory Learning ____ _____ _____ to be retainedmust be reinforcedSign LearningTollmanThe theory that states Learning is a systematic process guided by goals and expectations (memory is the key)Sign LearningMemory is the key to learningSign LearningMake a plan, Memorize the plan, Work the planSign LearningWhat did Guthrie and Toleman (both Neo-behaviorists) believe about learning?Reward and reinforcement are not necessary for learning.Operant ConditioningSkinnerLearning is a behavior or response that operates on the environment to bring reinforcing effectsOperant ConditioningWho emphasized the manipulation fo behavior by managing re-inforcemnt conditions?SkinnerRewarding every increment of behavior toward the desired resultShapingTraining an animal/ person to do something they don't normally do.Operant conditioningThe reinforcement schedule that prevents extinction for the longest amount of timevariable intervalDesirable behavior is reinforced and therefore maintainedwhile undesireable behavior is ignored and therefore diminishedBehavior modificationDevelopmental Learning TheoryPiagetInteraction between physical maturation and individual growthDevelopmental learning theoryFour developmental stages1. Sesorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete operational 4. Formal operationalDevelopmental changes in thinking are influenced by:1. Biological maturation 2. Activities and experiences 3. Social transmissionConstructivismPiaget/ VygotskyChildren should be able to construct their own knowledgeConstructivismEvery experience causes you to reorganize your perspective and your thoughtsDevelopmental Learning TheoryCognitive Learning TheoryAtkinson/ ShiffrinTo know something/ act of knowingCognitionStructured processing system: The mind can do things other than just spit spit facts out. There are internal forces affecting learning. The mind can reorder and reorganize factsCognitive Learning TheoryCompared the brain to a computerCognitive Learning TheoryWe are constantly bombarded with information, however, only the things that we pay attention to will be memorized.Cognitive Learning TheorySeven items plus or minus two chunksShort term memoryThree aspects of memorySensory registry, Short term memory, Long term memoryYou tend to remember the things you study at the beginning better then the stuff at the end.Primacy EffectYou tend to remember things you just heardRecency EffectEmphasis on higher mental processesCognition5 things cognitivists study (palmm)1. Perception 2. Attention 3. Language 4. Memory 5. MotivationJean Jacque Rousseau's greatest influencephilosophyWrote a book called EmilRousseauChild is basically goodRousseauBooks not necessaryRousseauChild centered classroomRousseauProvide Experiences not controlled activitiesRousseauPhilosophy for Montessori SchoolsRousseauSchools Without FailureGlasserGreatest influences were evaluation, discipline, concept learningGlasserResponsible for outcome based educationGlasseropposed grades, tests, homeworkGlasserSocial Cognitive TheoryVygotskyGreatest Influences: Language and self-esteemVygotskyBelieved in the importance of being able to communicate among peersVygotskyWhole languageVygotskySelf-esteem learningVygotskyCollaborative LearningVygotsky