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History Chapter 11 part 1
APWH The Earth and It's People
Terms in this set (49)
Romanov dynasty Russia
Took over after the Time of Troubles. Mikhail Romanov was the first Romanov tsar. Peter the Great expanded Russia and accelerated European influence. Catherine also built off Peter's work.
Peter the Great westernization policies
Travelled to Europe and learned European knowledge. Used that to build a navy and port cities in order to increase trade and naval dominance. Also promoted European imitation in his royal courts and elsewhere, and decreased seclusion of women. Modeled the government after that in Prussia, replacing boyars with appointed advisors.
Peter the Great shift of foreign policy
Increased Russia's trade, also fought wars with the Ottomans and Sweden to gain port cities. Pelts for trade from Siberia.
Importance of Black and Baltic seaports to Russian interests
Seaports opened up new trade routes. Peter first defeated Sweden for access to the Baltic and St. Petersburg, later defeated Ottomans for the northern shores of the Black Sea.
Ottoman naval power characteristics
Relied on galleys. Not very strong navy, but large land army that was more powerful than the Safavids and conquered the Balkans. Navy could not compete with European naval powers, but large resources could replace lost ships quickly.
Ottoman bureaucracy- viziers
Viziers were the next powerful after the sultans. After period of decline and revolts, grand viziers gained more power, but there was still lack of administrative control. Bureaucracy - the devshirme system. Askeri - the noble military class that was exempt from taxes.
Length of Ottoman rule as a dynasty
Ottomans were the longest ruling family dynasty - they ruled until the 1900s.
Location of Gunpowder empires
Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals, Japan, Russia, China, Europe, etc.
Safavid economy compared to Ottoman
Also relied on overland trade, but Safavids traded more in the Indian Ocean and with the Mughals while the Ottomans traded more with Europeans in the Mediterranean. Later, increasing military costs and inflation from silver led to economic decline. Tax farming in Ottoman Empire.
Babar (Babur)- Mughal founder
Defeated Delhi Sultanate and started the Mughal Empire. Muslim descendant of Mongols, invaded from Central Asia.
economic growth based on cotton cloth - prosperous under Akbar. Trade in Indian Ocean and also overland, but no navy, so Europeans had more trade influence.
Islam's spread to SE Asia
First arrived in 700s, but SE Asia was mostly influenced by Hindus. Later, Islam gradually spread to port cities and some royal courts and inland slowly. Sufis, trade, pilgrims spread Islam. Became a counter-force to Christian influence. Literacy grew, different varieties of Islam.
Limitations on European traders during Ming dynasty
Ming was reluctant in expanding trade with Europeans, though porcelain was a popular product in Europe.
Yongle role in Zheng He expeditions (why)
Ming Emperor that sponsored the expeditions in search of new tribute territories, curiosity, and new trade contacts. Later, the Ming stopped the expeditions because they did not see anything of value, and they had to deal with internal problems
Manchus establishment of Qing dynasty
Manchus invaded the weak Ming and established the Qing, but later maintained old institutions and policies
Tokugawa isolationism policies
Limited trade and contact with Europeans because of suspicions of Christianity. Decree banned Christianity, and also limited trade to prevent Christianity from resurfacing.
General characteristics of Ming rule-
P-centralized power, urban cities. Factories for manufacturing goods
E-European trade increased silk, cotton, porcelain, agriculture, and other industries. Silver imports. However, paper currency and copper coins were used, causing economic decline. Also, corruption and bad working conditions.
S-elites, merchants, and landowners formed unique culture in cities.
Ottoman Empire compared to Tokugawa Shogunate
Ottomans were more politically centralized, with more contact with Europe and more western influence. Also, larger army of mainly Turks and Janissaries, while the Tokugawa had regional daimyo and samurai. Japan was very isolated. Sultan and the emperor were both symbolic, while the grand viziers were like shoguns - more power, restricted emperor's power. Tokugawa banned guns after unifying Japan.
Artistic achievements of Ming
Blue porcelain. Also silk and unique artistic developments in cities to cater to upper classes.
Oda Nobunaga unification efforts, reason for failure
First to use Portuguese gunpowder technology in an attempt to unify Japan, but failed.
Tokugawa Ieyasu's rule
Began the Tokugawa Shogunate, attempted greater political centralization and economic integration. Limited contact with Europeans. Moved capital to Edo, and increased trade and economic growth
Reason Japan expelled Christian missionaries
Elites were suspicious of Christian influence
Kangxi- characteristics of rule
Expanded Qing empire, also achieved economic, military, and cultural growth through new policies and reforms such as infrastructure, lowering taxes, cutting rents and interest rates, and incentives for resettling areas, and increased foreign trade.
Safavid empire- general characteristics
I-Persian main script, compared to Arabic elsewhere.
R- Shi'ite Islam
A-Different art, blue mosaics, poetry.
E-Trade with Jews, Hindus, and Armenians, less with Europeans. Later, high military costs and inflation.
Peter the Great and Catherine the Great compared
Peter began a process of increased westernization, also started a navy and acquired seaports for trade and the navy. Catherine continued the process, also government reforms. Catherine was from Austria.
Sikhism- describe beliefs, elements of
New religion during Akbar's rule that combined Hinduism and Islam. Islam with Hindu ritualism.
Shah Jahan built it for his wife
Reasons for fall of Ming
Little Ice Age caused crop failure, famine, uprisings, and disease. Silver inflation. Paper currency and copper coins failed. Corruption in the government. Farmers were slow to adopt new ideas from Africa and the Americas. Mongol and Manchus pressure in the north, while southwest had pirates and vulnerable coasts. Japanese invasion caused Li Zichen to occupy Beijing, and later the Manchus conquered the Ming.
Alternate attendance practiced by Tokugawa Japan
Daimyo were required to stay in Edo for a period of time in order to maintain allegiance and prevent rebellions.
Russia compared to Ming empire generally
Russia welcomed contact with Europe, while China limited it. Russia in the north, and it had large fur resources and forests in Siberia. China exported different products like silk, cotton, porcelain, and tea to Europe and other places.
Japan and Chinese reactions to arrival of Europeans
Both were similar in isolationist policies in trade. China and Europe experienced a great exchange of goods and ideas, but Japan was less. Dutch studies in Japan. Japan expelled Christianity, but China welcomed it, and Christianity had more success in gaining converts in China.
Mughal Empire characteristics (general)
P- Minority of Muslim rulers over a majority of Hindus. Mansabs - grants of land in return for service from rulers. Land-grant system may have caused decline, other challenging regional powers, Nadir Shah's sacking of the capital.
R- Babur, Akbar, and Shah Jahan reconciled Islam and Hinduism
A- Islam and Hinduism synthesis
E-High economy under Akbar, cotton, foreign trade.
S-Cultural mix of Muslim and hindu in art, architecture, language (urdu/hindi).
Ottoman Empire characteristics (general)
P-Sultans, viziers, devshirme system.
T- Relied mostly on land army, little naval dominance.
E- Trade with Europeans through Mediterranean, relied on overland trade form the east. Later, tax farming and cost of military led to economic decline, while other port cities grew from disorder. Capitulations led Europeans to control trade.
S- Janissaries gained influence. Askeri - military class.
Russian serfdom compared to Americas slavery systems
Similar - serfs and slaves were tied to the land by their masters and were required to be returned. Low quality of life. 80% of Russia was serfs in the 1600s.
Isfahan society compared to Istanbul
Isfahan was less cosmopolitan and had different architecture and more religiously based, while Istanbul was located near the border with Europe, so it was more cosmopolitan. Both had narrow streets, and women were rarely seen, though some had power in areas like real-estate. Guilds, merchants, similar styles of dress (covering the body). Poetry and art more developed in Isfahan
The Hidden Imam
Belief of Shi'ite Islam that the 12th descendant of Ali is the rightful Imam.
Impact of Dutch and Portuguese on East Africa
Swahili Coast - many cities were raided. Portuguese first establish trading forts, but Dutch later take over. Only Malindi was spared.
Islam's arrival in East Africa-impact
Spread to Oman, which conquered Mombasa and a maritime empire. Also, led to Swahili language and culture. Also spread to Sudan.
Combination of languages from trade's influence - Swahili Coast. Participated in sub-Saharan and Indian Ocean trade, later conquered by Portuguese.
Reasons for collapse of Safavid and Mughal empires
Unable to realize growing influence of European naval dominance and power over trade. Rulers got weaker and weaker and armies got more independent.
Issues that weakened Ottoman Empire
Relied too heavily on Europeans, lost key trade powers to the Europeans through capitulations. Also, decline in the power of the central government and the increased cost in maintaining the land army and Janissaries. Military defeats, and provincial powers became more independent. Tax farming, decline or administrative control. Rebellions such as Patrona Halil rebellion. Fragmentation of Mamluks and Janissaries.
Role of tea in Chinese/ European trade
Most of the tea was grown in India and SE Asia. Britain wanted China to accept tea instead of just silver as part of the Macartney mission, but China refused.
Britain's attempt to revise trade with China because of their massive trade deficit. Did not succeed - China refused to revise the trading system.
Akbar's impact in India
Akbar reconciled Islam and Hinduism while expanding India's borders and implementing bureaucratic reforms, also economic growth.
Shah Abbas I
Made Isfahan the capital.
Suleiman the Magnificent reforms
Golden age of Ottomans. Led large assault on Christian Europe all the way to Vienna. Also sought to control trade in the Mediterranean.
Ottoman economic issues
Relied on overland trade from east and with Europe, but when eastern trade collapse, Ottoman economy declined.
Role of women in Gunpowder empires compared
Catherine ruled in Russia. Women also ruled Mughal Empire. Elite women were isolated from public, common women worked with common men.
Global silver trade
Led to inflation in places like China, Russia, and Islamic empires.
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