focus of attention toward teaching the child control over bowel and urinary functions
Freud's Oral Stage
focuses on the mouth as the source of pleasure
Freud's Phallic Stage
Focuses on the penis, clitoris as source of pleasure
Freud's Latency Stage
the repression of sexual feelings.
Freud's Genital Stage
development of primary and secondary sex characteristics and the primary focus of pleasure
Ivan Pavlov's Unconditioned Stimulus
a stimulus that innately evokes a response. (salvation in dogs)
Ivan Pavlov's Unconditioned Response
Response to a stimulus.
Ivan Pavlov's Conditioned Stimulus
organism learns to respond because it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus . (dog responds to bell paired with food)
Ivan Pavlov's Conditioned Response
organisms response to a conditioned stimulus. (dog responses to bell was salivation)
Piaget development - Assimilation
incorporating aspects of ones environment into an existing thought structure.
Piaget development - Accommodation
modifying current thought structure to incorporate a new feature of the environment
Piaget Stage 1 Sensorimotor (0-2)
Infant limited knowledge. Simple motor responses
Piaget Stage 2 Pre operational (2-7)
Objects used to represent something in play
Piaget Stage 3 Concrete Operations (7-11)
children begin thinking logically
Piaget Stage 4 Formal Operations (11 - +)
ability to reason
Vygotsky - child development Zone of Proximal Development ZPD
Range of tasks that n individual can complete while learning new information
when adult provides help to a child and task becomes easier.
Lewin's Equation for Behavior
B=f(P,E) - Nature and nurture interact in shaping individuals
Lewin's Force Field Anlysis
identifying forces that help people toward a goal or block movement toward a goal
Anna Fred EGO Defense Mechanisms
strategies used by the ego to minimize distress caused by the conflicting demands of the ID and Superego
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Belonging and love needs, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
1. trust vs. mistrust 2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3. initiative vs. guilt 4. industry vs. inferiority 5. identity vs. role confusion 6. intimacy vs. isolation 7. generativity vs. stagnation 8. integrity vs. despair
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Found out that we learn through reward.
BF Skinner Types of Operant Conditioning
Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction
Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
moral thinking develops in stages as cognitive abilities develop, with 3 levels divided into 6 sequential stages
Children; (1) Obediance and Punishment Orientation; (2) Self-interest orientation
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior
post conventional morality
actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles
seeking success in one area as a substitute for success in an other area.
transformation of anxiety into a physical dysfunction. (paralysis, blindness)
refusal to acknowledge reality
shifting of negative feelings about a person or situation onto a different person or situation
identifying with person or things causing the anxiety. identifying with a kidnapper
Isolation of affect
separating feelings from ideas and events. not expressing emotions about event
- An attempt to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with a stressful situation by using the intellectual process of logic, reasoning and analysis. wife using medical terms to talk about husbands heart attack and no emotion.
ones own negative characteristics are denied and seen as someone else's. blaming mother for characteristics that they also have.
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
Defense mechanism by which people behave in a way opposite to what their true but anxiety-provoking feelings would dictate. supporting a group but really having negative feelings abut it.
primitive modes of coping from earlier childhood. grabbing a blanket for security.
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
desires are diverted into activities that are acceptable. sexual urges are diverted to sports.
replacing an unacceptable goal with an acceptable one. tattoo artists becoming an oil painter to please family
repetitious ritual in an attempt to reverse an unacceptable action
when an individual shares emotional conflict for the purpose of giving support rather receiving it.
we lower our sights, reducing our goals to something that we believe is actually more possible or realistic.
dealing with emotional conflict by dedicating self to the needs of others. barren woman helping kids
daydreams that lack any connection to reality
A reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all. individuals who experince phobias.
compartmentalization of thoughts or activities from one's consciousness. individual with two spouses, families
interruption of normal personality development at a stage short of independence. male spending time with high school buddies.
complaining or making repetitious requests for help then rejecting the suggestions, advice, or help that others offer
copying someone else style.
incorporating someone else's characteristics
splitting off emotional components from a thought or experience. OCD
feeling as if having unlimited power
expressing aggression in an indirect passive manner
the process when in a close relationship the parts of self may in unconscious fantasy be thought of as being forced into the other person.
prevents repressed feelings of anxiety that would arise those memories. thinking about trauma event
doing something out of guilt to make up for a bad behavior
a direct, honest expression of feelings and desires
the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms. dizzy when test is due
an inability to see negative and positive attributes of self or others in order to cope. child who sees good in parent that abuses.
Consciously and intentionally pushing unpleasant feelings out of one's mind
the process of handling emotional conflicts in symbols as displacement of desire. dreams as a symbol of a deeper feeling.
Bowlby: separation anxiety
6 to 8 months of age. distressed when separated from caregiver.
Bowlby: Stranger anxiety
8 months - distressed by seeing stranger face
protest when separated from caregiver
despair / depression phase
despair manifested by crying for caregiver.turns into depression
detached state through repression
a pattern of depressed behavior found among very young children who have supportive caregivers but are now separated from one's caregiver
the desire to be near the people we are attached to
returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat
point of security from which a child can explore around the mother
anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure
Ainsworth: secure attachment
a child's assurance that attachment figure will return if separated.
Ainsworth: Ambivalent Insecure attachment
children who are usually distressed when an caregiver leaves. when child can't depend on caregiver.
Ainsworth: Avoidant attachment
childrenden who avoid being with the caregiver. abused or neglected.
The theory suggesting that there is a different process of moral development in women than in men.
cycle of abuse
I - Tension Building, II - Incident, III - Reconciliation, IV - Calm
furthering responses-encourage client to talk and demonstrate sw is listening paraphrasing-restating client's message seeking concreteness-clarifying terms summarizing-condensing version questioning-closed, opened, stacked, leading
open ended questions
questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
Interview technique used to determine the specific meaning to describe behaviors and feelings
Showing awareness of the emotions the client has experienced or is currently experiencing.
paying close attention to what someone is saying and communicating
helps a client become more self aware of components of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that the client is not aware of .
bias free language
inclusive language that treats individuals of different genders, races, cultures and abilities equally and that is not offensive to individuals or groups
simple random sample
every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection
choosing individuals who are easiest to reach
strategy that involves compiling the sample as the study progresses
ensures that there are sufficient cases representing different values of a variable.
inability to organize movement
the inability to recognize familiar objects.
inability to make decisions
inability to speak
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
subjective, objective, assessment, plan
dysfunctional thought patterns
emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another
Therapist has transference reaction to the patient
Psych ch 3 psychosocial theories and therapy98 terms