115 terms

Social Work License Exam

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Freud's Anal Stage
focus of attention toward teaching the child control over bowel and urinary functions
Freud's Oral Stage
focuses on the mouth as the source of pleasure
Freud's Phallic Stage
Focuses on the penis, clitoris as source of pleasure
Freud's Latency Stage
the repression of sexual feelings.
Freud's Genital Stage
development of primary and secondary sex characteristics and the primary focus of pleasure
Ivan Pavlov's Unconditioned Stimulus
a stimulus that innately evokes a response. (salvation in dogs)
Ivan Pavlov's Unconditioned Response
Response to a stimulus.
Ivan Pavlov's Conditioned Stimulus
organism learns to respond because it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus . (dog responds to bell paired with food)
Ivan Pavlov's Conditioned Response
organisms response to a conditioned stimulus. (dog responses to bell was salivation)
Piaget development - Assimilation
incorporating aspects of ones environment into an existing thought structure.
Piaget development - Accommodation
modifying current thought structure to incorporate a new feature of the environment
Piaget Stage 1 Sensorimotor (0-2)
Infant limited knowledge. Simple motor responses
Piaget Stage 2 Pre operational (2-7)
Objects used to represent something in play
Piaget Stage 3 Concrete Operations (7-11)
children begin thinking logically
Piaget Stage 4 Formal Operations (11 - +)
ability to reason
Vygotsky - child development Zone of Proximal Development ZPD
Range of tasks that n individual can complete while learning new information
Scaffolding
when adult provides help to a child and task becomes easier.
Lewin's Equation for Behavior
B=f(P,E) - Nature and nurture interact in shaping individuals
Lewin's Force Field Anlysis
identifying forces that help people toward a goal or block movement toward a goal
Anna Fred EGO Defense Mechanisms
strategies used by the ego to minimize distress caused by the conflicting demands of the ID and Superego
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Belonging and love needs, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
1. trust vs. mistrust
2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3. initiative vs. guilt
4. industry vs. inferiority
5. identity vs. role confusion
6. intimacy vs. isolation
7. generativity vs. stagnation
8. integrity vs. despair
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Found out that we learn through reward.
BF Skinner Types of Operant Conditioning
Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction
Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
moral thinking develops in stages as cognitive abilities develop, with 3 levels divided into 6 sequential stages
Pre-conventional Morality
Children; (1) Obediance and Punishment Orientation; (2) Self-interest orientation
conventional morality
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior
post conventional morality
actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles
compenasation
seeking success in one area as a substitute for success in an other area.
conversion
transformation of anxiety into a physical dysfunction. (paralysis, blindness)
denial
refusal to acknowledge reality
displacement
shifting of negative feelings about a person or situation onto a different person or situation
Identification
identifying with person or things causing the anxiety. identifying with a kidnapper
Isolation of affect
separating feelings from ideas and events. not expressing emotions about event
Intellectualization
- An attempt to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with a stressful situation by using the intellectual process of logic, reasoning and analysis. wife using medical terms to talk about husbands heart attack and no emotion.
Projection
ones own negative characteristics are denied and seen as someone else's. blaming mother for characteristics that they also have.
Rationalization
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
reaction formation
Defense mechanism by which people behave in a way opposite to what their true but anxiety-provoking feelings would dictate. supporting a group but really having negative feelings abut it.
Regression
primitive modes of coping from earlier childhood. grabbing a blanket for security.
Repression
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
Sublimation
desires are diverted into activities that are acceptable. sexual urges are diverted to sports.
Substitution
replacing an unacceptable goal with an acceptable one. tattoo artists becoming an oil painter to please family
undoing
repetitious ritual in an attempt to reverse an unacceptable action
affiliation
when an individual shares emotional conflict for the purpose of giving support rather receiving it.
aim inhibition
we lower our sights, reducing our goals to something that we believe is actually more possible or realistic.
altruism
dealing with emotional conflict by dedicating self to the needs of others. barren woman helping kids
Autistic Fantasy
daydreams that lack any connection to reality
Avoidance
A reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all. individuals who experince phobias.
dissociation
compartmentalization of thoughts or activities from one's consciousness. individual with two spouses, families
fixation
interruption of normal personality development at a stage short of independence. male spending time with high school buddies.
Help-Rejecting Complaining
complaining or making repetitious requests for help then rejecting the suggestions, advice, or help that others offer
Idealization
copying someone else style.
Introjection
incorporating someone else's characteristics
Isolation
splitting off emotional components from a thought or experience. OCD
Ominipotence
feeling as if having unlimited power
passive aggressive
expressing aggression in an indirect passive manner
projective identificaiton
the process when in a close relationship the parts of self may in unconscious fantasy be thought of as being forced into the other person.
resistance
prevents repressed feelings of anxiety that would arise those memories. thinking about trauma event
resitiution
doing something out of guilt to make up for a bad behavior
self-assertion
a direct, honest expression of feelings and desires
somatization
the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms. dizzy when test is due
Splitting
an inability to see negative and positive attributes of self or others in order to cope. child who sees good in parent that abuses.
Suppression
Consciously and intentionally pushing unpleasant feelings out of one's mind
symbolization
the process of handling emotional conflicts in symbols as displacement of desire. dreams as a symbol of a deeper feeling.
Bowlby: separation anxiety
6 to 8 months of age. distressed when separated from caregiver.
Bowlby: Stranger anxiety
8 months - distressed by seeing stranger face
protest phase
protest when separated from caregiver
despair / depression phase
despair manifested by crying for caregiver.turns into depression
detachment phase
detached state through repression
anaclitic depression
a pattern of depressed behavior found among very young children who have supportive caregivers but are now separated from one's caregiver
proximity maintenance
the desire to be near the people we are attached to
safe haven
returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat
secure base
point of security from which a child can explore around the mother
seperation distress
anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure
Ainsworth: secure attachment
a child's assurance that attachment figure will return if separated.
Ainsworth: Ambivalent Insecure attachment
children who are usually distressed when an caregiver leaves. when child can't depend on caregiver.
Ainsworth: Avoidant attachment
childrenden who avoid being with the caregiver. abused or neglected.
Gilligan's Theory
The theory suggesting that there is a different process of moral development in women than in men.
cycle of abuse
I - Tension Building, II - Incident, III - Reconciliation, IV - Calm
stages of dying
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Phases of Crisis Intervention
1. Formulation of Problem- immediate focus on the event and assessment of functioning
2. Implementation Phase- gain additional background information
3. Treatment Phase-
Bowen: Family Theory and therapy
goal is achievement of a higher level of differentiation of self on the part of each family member.
Virginia Satir
Pioneer of family therapy, stated that the therapist has roles to play during therapy
Virginia Satir: Styles of Communication:
1. The Placater, 2. the Blamer, 3. The Super Reasonable, 4. The Irrelevant, 5. The Congruent Communicator
Minuchin: Structural Family Theory
Families have an underlying organization that is adaptive or maladaptive.
Haley: Strategic Family Therapy
believe in possibility of rapid change and use resistance of family members in the service of change.
Haley: Strategic Family Therapy techniques
take charge role, directives, paradoxical directives, ordeals, restraining, our positioning, reframing.
Palazzoli: milan systemic therapy
strategic family therapy influenced by 3 models: 1. systems, 2. cybernetics, 3. communication theory
Perlman, Compton, Galaway: Problem solving model
individuals, groups, communities, organizaitons
Perlman, Compton, Galaway: Problem solving model phases
Contact, Contract, Action
Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
A-Activating Events
B-Belief System of Individual
C-Consequent of A & B
D-Disputing Irrational Thoughts & Beliefs
E-Emotional and Cognitive Effects of Revised Beliefs
Linehan: Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
primarily with borderline personality disorder.
Mindfulness
Interpersonal effectiveness
Distress tolerance
Emotion regulation
Verbal Communication Skills
furthering responses-encourage client to talk and demonstrate sw is listening
paraphrasing-restating client's message
seeking concreteness-clarifying terms
summarizing-condensing version
questioning-closed, opened, stacked, leading
open ended questions
questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
Seeking Concreteness
Interview technique used to determine the specific meaning to describe behaviors and feelings
empathetic responding
Showing awareness of the emotions the client has experienced or is currently experiencing.
active listening
paying close attention to what someone is saying and communicating
confrontation
helps a client become more self aware of components of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that the client is not aware of .
bias free language
inclusive language that treats individuals of different genders, races, cultures and abilities equally and that is not offensive to individuals or groups
simple random sample
every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection
convenience sample
choosing individuals who are easiest to reach
snowball sampling
strategy that involves compiling the sample as the study progresses
stratified sampling
ensures that there are sufficient cases representing different values of a variable.
Apraxia
inability to organize movement
Agnosia
the inability to recognize familiar objects.
abulia
inability to make decisions
aphasia
inability to speak
fixed-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
fixed-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable ratio
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
soap
subjective, objective, assessment, plan
Beck Depression
dysfunctional thought patterns
Transference
emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another
Countertransference
Therapist has transference reaction to the patient