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CH 21 Reproductive Systems
Terms in this set (22)
What three functions do both male and female reproductive systems share? What two functions are only the responsibility of the female reproductive system?
male and female:
1. produce haploid gametes
2. route gametes through tubes
3. produce hormones to mature, maintain reproductive organs
1. fetal development and delivery
2. nutrition of the neonate
How do sperm and ova (germ cells) differ from body cells such as liver or muscle (somatic) cells in terms of chromosome number?
half the number of chromosomes (23)
Describe the male gonads, the testes, in terms of location, structure and function. What is the benefit of the testes being located outside a body cavity? Describe the function of the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial cells.
located outside the body cavity b/c internal temps too high for sperm production. scrotum helps regulate temp. of the testes for spermatogenesis so they're homeostatic. The function of the seminiferous tubules is the location which sperm cells are created. Interstitial cells are between tubules and produce testosterone.
Describe the structure of a sperm. What are the functions of each part of the sperm? How many sperm are ejaculated during intercourse?
-the acrosome contains enzymes needed to penetrate an egg
Describe the route that the sperm travel on their way to the outside. What two body systems share the urethra?
-sperm are produced in seminiferous tubules in testes
-undergo maturation in epididymis
-sperm pass through vasa deferentia
What are the components of seminal fluid? Name the accessory organs that produce the seminal fluid. What are the components of semen?
produced by ***
Describe the structure and function of the penis. What happens to the erectile columns during an erection?
This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The glans, also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect.
What is the difference between male sterility and impotence?
Sterility means the man does not produce sperm or enough sperm and impotence means the man can't get an erection.
In addition to the testes, what other endocrine gland secretes hormones to influence the male reproductive system?
Describe the female gonads, the ovaries, in terms of location, structure and function.
They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries have two functions: they produce eggs (ova) and female hormones.
Describe oogenesis using the words ovum, follicle and corpus luteum. What are the hormones secreted during the different phases of the ovarian cycle? Describe the effects that these hormones have on the endometrium and body temperature.
1. a primary follicle contains an oocyte and beins producing the sex hormone estrogen
2. the secondary follicle contains a primary oocyte and produces the sex hormones estrogen and some progesterone
3.vesicular follicle develops
4. ovulation=the secondary oocyte is released
5. corpus luteum produces the sex hormones progesterone and some estrogen
6. corpus luteum degenerates
-FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone
-endometrium thickens and then sheds, body temperature spikes at ovulation
What other gland, besides the ovary itself, influences the female's reproductive cycle?
anterior pituitary gland
Describe the structure and function of the oviducts or Fallopian tubes. How does the ovum move down the oviduct?
The Fallopian tube consists of 3 layers: mucosa, muscularis and serosa. The mucosa consists of a simple ciliated columnar epithelium and underlying loose connective tissue. The muscularis consists of an inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle and the serosa consists of a simple squamous mesothelium and underlying loose connective tissue.
The cilia on the epithelium create a current that draws the oocyte from the infundibulum to the uterus, while the muscularis performs peristalsis to help movement of the oocyte as well.
Where does fertilization of the ovum take place? Where does implantation of the blastocyst (normally) occur? What is an ectopic pregnancy? When during the ovarian cycle is fertilization likely to occur?
-when the implantation occurs in oviduct instead of uterus
Describe the structure and function of the uterus or womb. Describe the location of the cervix in relation to the vagina. Name the three tissue layers of the uterus. Which layer is shed during menstruation? Which layer is responsible for labor contractions?
The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. Ednometrium, myometrium, serosa or perimetrium. Endometrium shed. Myometrium responsible for labor contractions.
Describe the structure and function of the vagina and external genitalia or vulva-the labia minor, labia major and the clitoris.
"Vulva" refers collectively to several structures that make up the female sex organ. These include two layers of lip-like "labia," known as the "labia majora" and "labia minora;" the mons pubis, a "mound" of fatty tissue that bulges over the pubic bone, the clitoris, the urinary meatus, the vaginal orifice, and the hymen. Together, the structures make up a fleshy, door-like opening to the vagina and urinary tract. Various structures of the vulva each serve specific functions. Other related structures include the perineum, pudendal cleft, and vaginal glands.
The vulva serves several functions, with each of its structures contributing to these purposes. The two sets of labia protect the opening to the vagina, serving as "double doors." Although the vagina is self-cleaning, the lips are necessary to keep unwanted debris from getting inside, much like the eyelids protect the eyes. The clitoris becomes stimulated and engorged during sexual intercourse, giving pleasure to the female. The opening to the urethra, which is located on the vulva, is key to urination, though the vulva is otherwise unrelated to the urination act.
Distinguish between hormonal methods, barrier methods and timing methods of contraception.
barrier: condoms, vascectomy, tabal ligation
hormonal: pill, patch
timing: pulling out, basal body temperature
Describe a vasectomy and tubal ligation. Why are they considered sterilization or permanent procedures?
Cuts tubes that route gametes to where they're supposed to go.
Describe sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS, genital herpes, HPV, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and hepatitis B. Which ones are curable and which ones are chronic conditions?
***not curable: AIDS and sometimes genital herpes
What is the result of erectile dysfunction or ED?
no erection, no surge of blood to penis
What is endometriosis?
piece of endometrium goes up Fallopian tube and gets out and attaches to another organ in abdominal cavity, chronic condition, sometimes requires surgery
What reproductive organs, both male and female, are most subject to cancer?
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