62 terms

Gov Unit 3 Ch 12

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Terms in this set (...)

Political party
an organized effort by office holders, candidates, activists, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process.
Governmental party
the office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label.
Organizational party
the workers and activists who make up the party's formal organization structure.
Party in the electorate
the voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party.
Machine
a party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
Direct primary
the election of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather that at party nomination conventions.
Civil Service Laws
these acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition.
Issue-oriented politics
politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties.
Ticket-split
to vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election.
Candidate-centered politics
politics that focuses directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation.
Party realignment
a shifting of party coalition groups in the electorate that remains in place for several elections. (voters may change parties, and the youngest group of voters may permanently adopt the label of the newly dominant party)
Critical election
an election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues.
Secular rearrangement
the gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system.
Coalition
a group made up of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials.
National party platform
a statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention.
Proportional representation
a voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party. System often used in European countries.
Winner-take-all system
an electoral system in which the party that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election. U.S. has this system.
National convention
a party conclave (meeting) held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform. Held every four years.
Think tank
institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas. Republicans have more think tanks than Democrats.
Soft money
the virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties under the auspice (protection) of party building.
Hard money
funds that can be used for direct electioneering but that are limited and regulated by the Federal Elections Commission.
Party identification
a citizen's person affinity for a political party, usually expressed by his or her tendency to vote for the candidate of that party.
Dealignment
a general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate.
News media
media providing the public with new information about subjects of public interest.
Yellow journalism
a form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized, oversimplified news coverage. Practiced by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer.
Muckraking
a form of journalism, in vogue in the early twentieth century, concerned with reforming government and business conduct.
Print media
the traditional form of mass media, comprising newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and journals.
Broadcast media
television, radio, cable, and satellite services.
New media
technologies such as the Internet that blur the line between media sources and create new opportunities for the dissemination of news and other information.
Network
an association of broadcast stations (radio or television) that share programming through a financial arrangement.
Affiliates
local television statements that carry the programming of a national network.
Wire service
an electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service's correspondence and sent to all member news media organizations.
Narrowcasting
targeting media programming at specific populations within society. Example: FOX is conservative leaning, CNN is liberal leaning.
Blog
web-based journal entries that provide an editorial and news outlet for citizens.
Content regulation
Government attempts to regulate the substance of the mass media.
Equal time rule
the rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
Fairness doctrine
Rule in effect from 1949 to 1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views on important public issues.
Press release
a document offering an official comment or position.
Press briefing
a relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press.
Press conference
an unrestricted session between an elected official and the press.
On background
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source.
Deep background
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source.
Off the record
Information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public.
On the record
Information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source.
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan:
The Supreme Court concluded that "actual malice" must be proved to support a finding on libel against a public figure. (just publishing false info isn't enough)
Media effects
the influence of news sources on public opinion.
Agenda setting
the constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government. I.e. Press contributed to the finding of Elizabeth Smart and the implementation of the Amber Alert system.
Framing
The process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue.
Social capital
the myriad [countless] relationships that individuals enjoy that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective action.
Civic virtue
the tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good.
Interest group
an organized group that tries to influence public policy.
Disturbance theory
political scientist David B. Truman's theory that interest groups form in part to counteract the efforts of other groups.
Public interest group
an organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members. (For example, many upper and middle class people belonged to Progressive era groups.)
Economic interest group
a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members.
Earmark
funds that an appropriations bill designates for a particular purpose within a state or congressional district. (Money targeted for programs for building roads, schools, enhancing parks or waterways, etc)
Political action committee (PAC)
federally mandated, officially registered fund-raising committee that represents interest groups in the political process.
Lobbyist
interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization or client through political persuasion.
Trade association
a group that represents a specific industry.
Lobbying
the activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the group's position.
Patron
a person who finances a group or individual activity.
Collective good
something of value that cannot be withheld from a non member of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment.
Free rider problem
potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing effort.