96 terms

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Institutions of Government
executive (head of state and govt), legislature (unicameral, bicameral), judiciary (indep judiciaries, judicial review), bureaucracy, military
Politics
struggle for power; who gets what, when, and how, gives winners ability to make decisions affecting others
State
organizations that maintain a monopoly of violence over a territory; power gets exercised over a territory through a set of public institutions
Unitary State
concentrate most of political power in national capital, allocate little to religions or localities
Federal State
divide power btwn central state and regional/local authorities
Nation
human community with shared culture and history; psychological sense of identity
Country
state, govt, regime, and people who live within a political system
Regime
fundamental norms and rules that control access to and exercise of political power; established by admin over time
Government
leadership/elite that administers state; leadership in power at a particular moment, roughly akin to an American administration that administer the state
Sovereignty
ability to exercise power independently
Devolution
handing down; send down power and decision making; when central states hand power down to lower levels of govt
Political Culture
history, values, belies, traditions, influencing political behavior; patterns of basic norms about politics
Legitimacy
extent to which a state's power's authority is regarded as right and proper
Traditional Legitimacy
state is obeyed because has long tradition of being obeyed
Charismatic Legitimacy
identification with magnetic appeal of a leader or movement; states that are considered legitimate because of their identification with an important individual
Rational-legal Legitimacy
system of laws and procedures that become highly institutionalized; legitimacy based on a system of laws and procedures that become highly institutionalized
Political Cleavage
factors that separate groups
Crosscutting Cleavages
divisions that include people with differences, strengthening society, ie Buddhists who are rich, poor, middle class and whites who are Buddhist, Catholic, and Protestant
Coinciding Cleavages
divisions one on top of another ie rich Buddhist Asians, middle class Protestant blacks, etc
Democracy
free and fair elections - basic=procedural (free and fair elections - not yet civil rights and liberties)
Liberal Democracy
aka substantive democracy - go beyond just the rules and institutions that are democratic - but also includes civil liberties, economic liberty, open access to information
Illiberal Democracy
limited democracy; has elections and elected institutions but limited/little civil rights and civil liberties
Social Democracy
have elected institutions with more redistributed wealth; ideology that places considerable value on equality, but also attempts to protect some individual freedoms
Communism
ideology that places the emphasis on creating economic equality instead of individual political and economic freedoms
Democratic Centralism
Communist Party doctrine subordinating individual members to the party organization; Leninst organizational structure where the party member is subordinate to party organization and power is concentrated in hands of elite
Authoritarian
little individual freedom; few civil rights and liberties, limit role of public in making decisions; deny basic rights and liberties
Totalitarianism
all facets of life controlled; authoritarian regimes that feature a strong, official ideology that seeks to transform fundamental aspects of the state, society, and the economy using a wide array of organizations and the application of force
Corporatism
groups are officially recognized by the government, but they except limits as to what they can do; opposite of interest group pluralism; citizen participation is channeled into state sanctioned groups; not civil society
Cooptation
incorporate dissidents into the system and accommodate demands ie so they don't threaten continuity; when members of the public are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state and govt
Theocracy
rule by religion or religious leaders; authoritarian regime that has leaders who claim to rule on behalf of God
Political Ideology
sets of political values regarding the fundamental goals of politics
Liberalism (as a political ideology)
ideology that places a high priority on individual political and economic freedoms, favoring them over any attempts to create economic equality
Political Attitude
views regarding the status quo in any society, specifically the desired pace and methods of political change
Radicalism
support rapid, extensive, and often revolutionary change
Liberalism (as an attitude)
promote evolutionary change within the system
Conservatism
support the status quo and view change as risky
Reactionary
promote rapid change to restore political, social, and economic institutions that once existed
Proportional Representation (PR)
an electoral system where the percentage of votes a party receives in a distric determines how many of that district's seats the party will gain
First Past the Post/Single Member District (SMD)
electoral system in which only one representative for each constituency and the candidate with the largest number of votes - and not necessarily a majority - wins the seat
Political Economy
study of how politics and economics are related
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
total market value of goods and services produced within a country over a period of one year
Purchasing-Power Parity (PPP)
a mechanism that attempts to estimate the real buying power of income in each country, using United States prices as a benchmark; GDP per capita, US=$49,800, Nigeria=$2700
Gini Index
most commonly used measure of economic inequality; 0=perfectly equal, 100=perfectly unequal, goes from 0 to 100; Mexico=51.7, US=45, Russia=42
Globalization
process of expanding and intensifying linkages among states, societies, and economies
Supranational organization
transcends national borders, ie European Union, NATO, UN, Arab League
Civil society
organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interest, ie interest groups, media, businesses
Clientelism
informal policymaking relationships between individuals who provide goods and services to those in less strategic or powerful positions in return for their political/economic support; state provides benefits to groups of its political supporters; aka patron-client system
Judicial review
mechanism by which court can review laws and policies and overturn those seen as violations of constitution
Legislature
branch of govt formally charged with making laws
Bicameral
legislatures with two chambers
Unicameral
legislatures with a single chamber
Head of government
individual who deals with everyday tasks of running state, such as formulating and executing policy
Head of state
individual who symbolizes and represents the people both nationally and internationally, embodying and articulating goals of regime
Parliamentary system
features an executive head of govt (often prime minister), usually elected from within legislature
Presidential system
combines roles of head of state and head of govt in office of president; legislative-executive system that features a directly elected president with most executive powers; directly elected legislatures
Semi-Presidential System
includes prime minister approved by legislature and directly elected president, two sharing executive power; legislative-executive system that features a prime minister approved by the legislature and a directly elected president
Rule of law
all citizens are equal before the law and no one is above the law, including political leaders; when everyone is held accountable to the law, including govt - law is supreme
Rule by law
when authority uses law to advantage and is above law
Power
ability to get other people or groups to do what you want, even against their will
Elite recruitment
individuals can be selected for office through election, appointment, birth, and auction
Nationalize
buy up most of industry in an area to make things affordable
Authority
source of power
Normative Questions
theoretical questions, ie What should Mexico do to reduce its crime rate
Empirical Questions
factual questions, ie What is Mexico's crime rate
Marxism-Leninism
philosophy adopted by ruling Communist parties; emphasizes strategy and organization to be used by communist part to overthrow capitalism and seize power as a first step on the road to communism
Developed Countries
high standard of living (higher income per capita) and strong economies (frequently industrialized); high Human Development Index (HDI) rating
Developing Countries
biggest category; attempting to improve economic status, investing in things but currently with low average income and less sophisticated infrastructure; better end of LDC (less developed countries)
Under-developed Countries
poorest countries; lack industrialization, infrastructure and developed natural resources; suffer from low per capita income; frequently heavily dependent on subsidiary agriculture
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
treaty among US, Mexico, Canada; implemented 1994, eliminated trade barriers between the 3 countries for the most part; caused N Mexico to become more wealthy and South Mexico to get poorer; part of neoliberal reforms in Mexico
Economic Liberalization
change that limits the power of the state and increases the power of the private sector over private property and market forces, ie Economic Shock Therapy which led to inflation; ie remove price control, remove subsidies, privatization
Privatization
selling off state-owned companies; a way to implement economic liberalization
Neoliberal Economic Reforms
reforms that focus on the free market along with fiscal responsibility; one step further than economic liberalization since it's also fiscally responsible; ie Mexico in 1980s, privatized but also got rid of subsidies so wouldn't have huge debt
Democratic Deficit
when the power of democratic institutions fall short of democratic ideals, ie Russia
Interest Group
self-serving, citizens in country organizing to achieve goal
NGO (Nongovernmental Organizations)
independent of govt; tend to be organized by groups that want the govt to do something but isn't doing, ie Amnesty International, Red Cross
Failed State
no control over what happens, loss of legitimacy, loss of power, no monopoly of violence, no control over borders
Marxism
theory that in a struggle over resources, the elite will dominate; eventually the proletariat will create a classless state
Socialism
one stage in Marxist theory - public ownership of means of production and egalitarian distribution of wealth and income
Revolution
replacement of a regime
Libertarian
political ideology that emphasizes less govt intervention
Linkage Institution
a system of institution that helps citizens communicate views to the govt and vice versa
Command Economy
govt allocates goods and resources
Market Economy
interaction between forces of supply and demand that allocate goods and resources
WTO (World Trade Organization)
an international trade organization
Fusion of powers
responsibilities between branches of govt overlap
Civil Service
employees of govt who get their job through merit; based on abilities rather than connections
Rentier State
country that obtains much of its revenue from the export of oil or other natural resources; ie Mexico
Correlation
association btwn variables
Causation
when a change in one variable causes a change in another
Nationalism
Pride in one's group of people and state.
Transparency
When a government allows for the general public to review laws and decisions. Also when government officials are held accountable and are against corruption.
ISI (Import Substitute Industrialization)
put up high tariffs; developments strategy that uses high tariffs and other barriers to imports to stimulate domestic industry
Prebendalism
ppl who know and support govt officals and then feel entitled to govt benefits; especially prevalent in Nigeria; one step beyond patron-clientelism
Bureaucracy
Structure and regulations in place to control activity in large organizations or government.
Referendum
Direct vote by the people on a proposal
Technocrat
bureaucrats who are career-minded, administer public policy based on technical rationale rather than political rationale; do what's right, not what's popular