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how much of sun's en energy is reflected back to space?


90 degree angle solar rays are striking the tropic of cancer on?

april 21

a place located along a windward coast will probably have?

cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude

the annual range of temp is?

difference between the average temperature of the warmest and coldest months

transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity is by


ozone is concentrated in the ?


the length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator on ?

sept 21

the fall equinox in southern hemisphere occurs on?

march 21

the storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ?

greenhouse effect

practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere?


daily mean is found by?

found by getting mean of max & min. temp

the longest wavelengths on the electromagnetic spectrum are?


fifty percent of the gases making up the atmosphere are found below?

3.5 miles (5.6 km)

ozone filters out most of the ______ radiation in sunlight?


the normal lapse rate in troposphere is about

6.5 degrees per km

air is best described as

a mixture

the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere occurs on ?

march 21

the amount of water vapor in the air (by volume) usually does not exceed?


under what circumstances could relative humidity exceed 100% without producing condensation in the air?

when the air is perfectly dry

the change of state from a gas to a liquid is?


the dew point is the temperature at which?

water vapor condenses to a liquid

which fog may be categorized as an evaporation fog?


the cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is


this fog results from adiabatic cooling


this term is used to describe clouds that produce precipitation


the process of converting a liquid to vapor is


when water vapor changes directly to a solid it is called?


a wintertime form of precipitation that consists of small ice particles is called?


this fog forms in valleys at night

advection fog

this cloud may develop an "anvil head"?


when warm moist air moves over a cold surface ____ fog may result


the most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is ________

cooling by expansion of air

when a solid converts directly to a gas without a liquid state, it is?


a halo around the sun or moon means what is present?


which cloud consists of globular cloud masses that takee on a billowy or cauliflower like structure?


stability prevails when the environmental lapse rate is

less than the wet adiabatic rate

when supercooled raindrops freeze on contact with solid objects what forms?


deserts such as the great basin, gobi, and takla makan are examples of

rainshadow desets

high air pressure systems are usually associated with

clear weather

a steep pressure gradient ______

produces strong winds

lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called?


in the southern hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system blow

clockwise and toward the center

instruments for measuring air pressure?

barograph, mercurial barometer, and aneroid barometer, NOT used : anemometer

in the n. hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow

counterclockwise and toward the center

most of the us is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?


which factors influence the magnitude of the coriolis force?

both wind speed and latitude

the force that generates wind is

pressure gradient forceq

this pressure zone is associated with abundant precipitation and warm temperatures

equatorial low

another name for the area of equatorial lows is the


what is the technical name for a high pressure center


upper air winds

are unaffected by the Coriolis & are generally faster than surface winds

if earth were not rotating

air would move directly from high to low pressure

the mercurial barometere was invented by


a santa ana ( or chinook or foehn) wind is a

very dry, warm wind flowing down a mountain slope

an altimeter is an adaption of the


the sahara and australian deserts are associated with

subtropical high

the coriolis influences

only wind direction

when an area is experiencing several consecutive days of rather constant weather it is __________

occluded front weather

an mp air mass is

cold and humid

tornadoes most often move towards what direction?


which should have the steepest pressure gradient?


cirrus clouds followed by cirrostratus and then altostratus means the approach of a?

warm front

what's shown by a line with semicircles extending from one side

cold fronts

what air mass is the source of most moisture for precipitation in the central and eastern u.s.?


an air mass from the gulf of mexico is labeled


hurricanes generally are?

areas of heavy rainfall and strong winds, smaller than mid-latitude cyclones & larger than tornadoes

what is true about tornadoes?

true: most common in midwest and great plains, usually occur along the warm front of a mid-latitude cyclone, associated with cumulonimbus, NOT TRUE: occur most in spring

why are hurricanes less intense on land?

lack of warm, moist air

this air mass originates as a different air mass in siberia and is subsequently altered


"rain long foretold long lasat, short notice soon pass" first part ?

refers to a warm front

when an active cold front overtakes a wrm front

an occluded front forms

the ______ west coast climate is situated on the western (windward) side of continents from 40-65 degrees ?


almost ____ of australia is desert


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