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Royal Palace and monastery designed and built in the 16th century by the Spanish king Phillip II. Representative of Spain's leadership in the Christian world at the time.

Dutch Revolt

Revolt of the Dutch against the Spanish Empire which led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic.

William of Orange

Prince of Orange who first governed as Stadtholder over the Dutch and who eventually won the crown in England, Ireland, and Scotland. Led many wars in favor of Protestant reform and take over.

Mary Tudor

Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Succeeded Edward VI and was the Queen of England and Ireland. Most remembered in England for restoring the country to Catholicism.

Henry IV

French Calvinist who before taking the throne in France became Catholic. Wrote the Edict of Nantes which enforced religious toleration of and gave more rights to Protestants in France.

"Paris is well worth a mass"

Said by Henry IV when first given the throne in France. He felt that changing his religion from Calvinism to Caltholicism in order to become French king was worth the trouble.


Rulers who did not mix personal beliefs or religious views with the rulings of their kingdom. In order to have a strong reign and country they believed that one must centralize power into the monarchy and government.

Edict of Nantes

Edict enacted by King Henry IV of France showing religious toleration to Calvinists by giving them certain freedoms which they did not have before in France. Important to creating civil instead of religious unity in France.

Thirty Years' War

War fought throughout Europe that started as a religious despute between the Catholics and Protestants of the Holy Roman Empire. Resulted in the Peace of Westphalia in which the Bourbon Dynasty rose to power and the Habsburg power sunk.

Defenestration of Prague

Incident thought to be the central spark of the Thirty Years' War in which a group of angered Bohemian Protestants entered Prague Castle and threw Catholic Bohemian Regents out of a window.

Edict of Restitution

Attempt by Holy Roman Emperor, Fedinand II, to restore agreements reached in the Peace of Augsburg.

Cardinal Richelieu

French Cardinal who helped rule over France while Louis XIII was still too young. Came up with the Intendant System.

English Civil War

War in England between Parliament and Royalty. Started with battles between Long Parliament and Charles I

James I

Son of Mary, queen of Scots. Became King of Scots and King of England and preceded Charles I

Charles I

King of England and Scotland who started the power struggle between Parliament and himself which started the English Civil War.

Oliver Cromwell

Political and Military leader in England who fought on the side of Parliament in the English Civil War and helped defeat the royalists. English constitutional document "Instrument of Government" named him as first Lord Protector.


Political movement in England which sought for universal manhood suffrage.


Protestant communist group in England who believed in economic equality. Believed that living simply among nature is the best way to live.

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