Chapter 8 Vocabulary AP Biology

Active Transport
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Terms in this set (36)
Facilitated diffusionPassive transport aided by proteinsFlaccid:weak, lax, and softFluid Mosaic Model: currently accepted model of the cell membrane structure. Membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.Gated channela trans membrane protein channel that opens and closes in response to a particular stimuli.GlycolipidA lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates.Glycoprotein:A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates.Hypertonic:Referring to a solution that when surrounding a cell, will cause that cell to lose water.Integral proteinA trans membrane protein with hydrophobic regions that extend into the hydrophilic interior of the membrane and hydrophilic regions in contact with the aqueous solutions of the membrane.Ion channel:a trans membrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to diffuse across the membrane and down its concentration or electrochemical gradient.IsotonicThe concentration is the same n the inside as well as the outside. No net movement.LigandA molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a bigger one.Membrane potential:The difference in electrical charge across a cell's plasma membrane due to differential distribution of ions.OsmoregulationRegulation of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organismOsmosisThe diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane.Passive transportThe diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy.Peripheral proteinA protein loosely bound to the surface of a membrane or to part of an integral protein and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.Phagocytosis:The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and ameboid protozoans.PinocytosisA type on endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved contents.PlasmolysisIn walled cells where the cytoplasm shrivels up and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall. When a cell loses water to a hypertonic environment.Proton pumpAn active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport hydrogen ions outs of a cell against their concentration gradient.Receptormediated endocytosis: Process by which cells internalize molecules by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being internalized.Selective Permeability: A property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the passage of substances across them.Sodium-potassium pumpA transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell.TonicityThe ability of a cell to gain or lose water.Transport proteinA trans member protein that helps a certain substance cross the membrane.TurgidSwollen or distended