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What is the definition of persuasion?

The process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior

what are the three layers of the persuasion-circle-target-diagram?

outer layer is attitudes, middle layer is beliefs, inner layer is values

What is the definition of the elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)?

People can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented, or emotional appeals

what is the central route of ELM?

logic = logos

what is the peripheral route of ELM?

emotion = pathos/
credibility = ethos

What is motivation in terms of the ELM?

the internal force that drives people to achieve their goals

What is Cognitive Dissonance?

The sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns. aka it encourages you to think in new ways.

what is it when you feel a change in attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior?

cognitive dissonance

What is Maslow's Hierarchy?

A pyramid of listener/human needs

What is the order of Maslow's Hierarchy?

Physiological needs: Hunger
Safety needs: Protection
Social needs: Love
Esteem needs: Self-esteem
Self-actualization: The need to achieve one's highest potential

What are some positive ways to motivate your audience?

"you'll never have to worry if..."
"Everything will be great if you..."

What are some negative way to motivate your audience?

fear appeals

What is the social judgement theory?

Theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuasive message into three categories

What are the 3 categories of the social judgement theory?

Latitude of acceptance, Latitude of rejection, and Latitude of Non-Commitment

What is the Latitude of Acceptance?

the audience agrees with the speaker

What is the Latitude of Rejection?

the audience disagrees with the speaker

What is the Latitude of Non-Commitment?

The audience isn't sure how to respond

What's the definition of the Proposition in a persuasive speech?

A statement that summarizes the ideas which a speaker wants an audience to agree on.

What is a Proposition of Fact?

"Students who receive an A in COM 135 are more likely to take additional COM classes"

What is a Proposition of Value?

COM 135 has more importance than ENG 111

What is a Proposition of Policy?

All students should be required to take COM 135

What is ethos?


What is logos?

Logic and Evidence

what is pathos?

Emotional appeal

inductive reasoning

when specific instances lead to general conclusions

deductive reasoning

when a general principle leads to a specific conclusion


men are smart,
Bob is a man,
Bob is smart

Reasoning by Analogy

Reasoning by comparison

Causal Reasoning

A caused B

what are some emotional appeals?

fear, hope, pride, guilt

What is a good strategy for adapting?

You need to consider where your topic is in regards to the audience

What are the three different types of audience classifications for persuasive speaking?

Receptive, Neutral, Unreceptive

What are three strategies for persuasive speaking?


IMPORTANT: what is Monroe's Motivated Sequence?

1. Attention
2. Need
3. Satisfaction
4. Visualization
5. Action

What part of ELM focuses on indirect aspects of a persuasive message? Such as music or emotional appeals.

Pathos Route

Latitude of Acceptance, Latitude of Rejection, and Latitude of Noncommitment are all aspects of which theory?

Social Judgement Theory

What is a three part way of developing an argument with a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion?


What are irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion?

Red Herring

What are the five steps of Monroe's Motivated Sequence?

1) Attention
2) Need
3) Satisfaction
4) Visualization
5) Action

The ___________ Speaker advocates for change and supports resolution.


____________ is charting out the main arguments of a debate, or essentially taking notes while your opponent is speaking.


Define Refutation

The attempt to weaken/destroy/disprove that with which you disagree.

In Refutational Speaking, the ________ is the topic or issue of debate.


The _________ Speaker does not want change, but rather wants to keep life as it is, to maintain the status quo.


The initial and subsequent line of argumentation, in refutational speaking.


The _________ is the rebuilding of one's case which has been attacked by the opponent. It is the last speech delivered in the debate.


What is the Toulmin Model of Argumentation?

Claim -------------> Data


a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')


Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentance


An implied comparison between two things or concepts


The attribution of human qualities to intimidate things or ideas


Use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more phrases, clauses, or sentences.


Opposition, such as that used in two-part sentences in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first.


Use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis


Leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear


Reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence

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