The process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
what are the three layers of the persuasion-circle-target-diagram?
outer layer is attitudes, middle layer is beliefs, inner layer is values
What is the definition of the elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)?
People can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented, or emotional appeals
what is the central route of ELM?
logic = logos
what is the peripheral route of ELM?
emotion = pathos/ credibility = ethos
What is motivation in terms of the ELM?
the internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
What is Cognitive Dissonance?
The sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns. aka it encourages you to think in new ways.
what is it when you feel a change in attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior?
What is Maslow's Hierarchy?
A pyramid of listener/human needs
What is the order of Maslow's Hierarchy?
Physiological needs: Hunger Safety needs: Protection Social needs: Love Esteem needs: Self-esteem Self-actualization: The need to achieve one's highest potential
What are some positive ways to motivate your audience?
"you'll never have to worry if..." "Everything will be great if you..."
What are some negative way to motivate your audience?
What is the social judgement theory?
Theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuasive message into three categories
What are the 3 categories of the social judgement theory?
Latitude of acceptance, Latitude of rejection, and Latitude of Non-Commitment
What is the Latitude of Acceptance?
the audience agrees with the speaker
What is the Latitude of Rejection?
the audience disagrees with the speaker
What is the Latitude of Non-Commitment?
The audience isn't sure how to respond
What's the definition of the Proposition in a persuasive speech?
A statement that summarizes the ideas which a speaker wants an audience to agree on.
What is a Proposition of Fact?
"Students who receive an A in COM 135 are more likely to take additional COM classes"
What is a Proposition of Value?
COM 135 has more importance than ENG 111
What is a Proposition of Policy?
All students should be required to take COM 135
What is ethos?
What is logos?
Logic and Evidence
what is pathos?
when specific instances lead to general conclusions
when a general principle leads to a specific conclusion
men are smart, Bob is a man, Bob is smart
Reasoning by Analogy
Reasoning by comparison
A caused B
what are some emotional appeals?
fear, hope, pride, guilt
What is a good strategy for adapting?
You need to consider where your topic is in regards to the audience
What are the three different types of audience classifications for persuasive speaking?
Receptive, Neutral, Unreceptive
What are three strategies for persuasive speaking?
Problem-Solution Refutation Cause-Effect
IMPORTANT: what is Monroe's Motivated Sequence?
1. Attention 2. Need 3. Satisfaction 4. Visualization 5. Action
What part of ELM focuses on indirect aspects of a persuasive message? Such as music or emotional appeals.
Latitude of Acceptance, Latitude of Rejection, and Latitude of Noncommitment are all aspects of which theory?
Social Judgement Theory
What is a three part way of developing an argument with a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion?
What are irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion?
What are the five steps of Monroe's Motivated Sequence? ON EXAM
1) Attention 2) Need 3) Satisfaction 4) Visualization 5) Action
The ___________ Speaker advocates for change and supports resolution.
____________ is charting out the main arguments of a debate, or essentially taking notes while your opponent is speaking.
The attempt to weaken/destroy/disprove that with which you disagree.
In Refutational Speaking, the ________ is the topic or issue of debate.
The _________ Speaker does not want change, but rather wants to keep life as it is, to maintain the status quo.
The initial and subsequent line of argumentation, in refutational speaking.
The _________ is the rebuilding of one's case which has been attacked by the opponent. It is the last speech delivered in the debate.
What is the Toulmin Model of Argumentation?
Claim -------------> Data ^ Warrant
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentance
An implied comparison between two things or concepts
The attribution of human qualities to intimidate things or ideas
Use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Opposition, such as that used in two-part sentences in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first.
Use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis
Leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear
Reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence