Sociology PPT 3

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Terms in this set (...)

Society
A group of people who live together in a specific territory and share a culture
Culture
The collection of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors, and material objects shared by a people and socially transmitted from generation to generation
Material culture
The physical objects produced by people in a particular culture, including tools, clothing, toys, works of art, shopping malls, and housing
Nonmaterial culture
The ideas of a culture, including values and beliefs, accumulated knowledge about how to understand and navigate the world, and standards or "norms" about appropriate behavior
value
a deeply held principle or standard that people use to make judgments about the world, especially in deciding what is desirable or worthwhile
culture war
an intense disagreement about core values and moral positions
knowledge (cultural capital)
the range of information, awareness, and understanding that helps us navigate our world
culture shock
the experience of being disoriented because of a lack of knowledge about an unfamiliar social situation
multiculturalism
the recognition, valuing, and protection of the distinct cultures that make up a society
ethnocentrism
the judgment of other cultures by the standards of one's own on the assumption that one's own is superior
xenophobia
the unreasonable fear
and hatred of foreigners or people from other cultures
cultural relativism
the practice of understanding a culture by its own standards
norms
a culture's rules and expectations for "appropriate" behavior
culture lag
the ways that new technological developments often outpace the norms that govern our collective experiences with these new technologies
mores
norms that are strictly enforced, with potentially severe penalties for violating them
folkways
group habits or customs that are common in a given culture
behaviors
actions associated with a group that help to reproduce a distinct way of life
ideal culture
ideal culture
real culture
what members of a culture actually do, which may or may not reflect the ideal
cultural objects
the physical items that are created by and associated with people who share a culture
Ideology
A system of meaning that helps define and explain the world and that makes value judgments about that world
Dominant ideology
A widely held and regularly reinforced set of assumptions that generally support the current social system and serve the interests of authorities
dominant culture
a culture that permeates the society and that represents the ideas and practices of those in positions of power
subcultures
cultures associated with smaller groups in the society that have distinct norms, values, and lifestyles that set them apart
Hipsters
Derived from the 1940s hipsters, who were beats and were into jazz and African-American culture, today's hipsters

"play at being the inventors or first adopters of novelties" (Grief, 2010).