47 terms

Chemical Interactions (8th)

Vocabulary from the chemistry unit
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Atom
Smallest part of an element; made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Atomic Mass
Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Atomic Number
Number of protons or electrons in an atom
Bohr Diagram
Shows the local of ALL the electrons in an atom; resembles a "bulls-eye" with the different energy levels
Chemical Equation
Represents a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and coefficients
Chemical Formula
Represents a chemical compound (with symbols and subscripts)
Chemical Symbols
Letter or letters that are used to represent the elements
Compound
Pure substance made of two or more elements that are chemical combined
Conservation of Mass
Law that states the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products
Covalent Bond
Bond between two elements that share electrons
Electron
Subatomic particle with a negative charge; found in energy levels around the nucleus
Energy Level
Areas around the nucleus that contains electrons; first can hold 2, second can hold 8, and the third can hold up to 18
Family
Groups or columns of elements in the periodic table with similar properties
Ion
An atom that has lost or gained an electron
Ionic Bond
Bond between two ions that results from a transfer of electrons
Isotope
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Lewis Structure
Diagram that show the number of VALENCE electrons in an atom; includes the chemical symbol with dots as valence electrons
Matter
Anything that has mass and volume
Metal
Elements found on the left-hand side of the periodic table, such as Na, Mg, and Au
Metalloids
Elements located along the zig-zag that have properties of metals and nonmetals
Mixture
Two or more substances mixed together, but are not chemically combined
Monomers
Molecules that are linked together to make polymers
Neutron
Subatomic particle with no charge; found in the nucleus
Nonmetals
Elements found on the right-hand side of the periodic table, such as H, O, and Cl
Nucleus
Center of the atom
Periodic Table
Chart that shows the elements arranged in families and periods based on their properties and atomic structure
Petrochemicals
Chemicals that are made from petroleum; used to make slime and plastics
Polymers
Created by linking monomers together to make a chain; proteins, DNA, and slime
Products
Substances that are produced by a chemical reaction
Proton
Subatomic particle with a positive charge; found in the nucleus
Reactants
Substances that enter into a chemical reactions
Reaction Rate
The speed at which a chemical reaction takes place
Valence
Electrons in the outermost energy level
Quark
Particles that make up protons and neutrons
Oxidation Number
The number of electrons an atom may gain or lose; also known as it's "charge"
Solute
Substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent
Substance that does the dissolving in a solution
Solution
Homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
Colloid
A mixture made up of a liquid and particles that (because of their large size) remain suspended rather than dissolved in that liquid.
Suspension
A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration
Homogeneous
Type of mixture that appears the same throughout
Heterogeneous
Type of mixture in which the individual components are visible
Crystal
A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again
Molecule
A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Subscript
Number that shows the number of atoms of each element in a compound
Coefficient
A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.
Alloy
A mixture of two or more metals