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PLSC exam 1 (lecture 1-9)
Terms in this set (109)
produce trichomes, elongated hairs or stoma
root system characterized by many thin multi-directional branches, typical of monocots
outermost layer of the cortex cells; replaces the epidermis
consists of Suberin and login; forces water and dissolved substances entering and leaving the central core to pass through the endodermis in root.
elongated, deeply growing primary root, especially in dicots, often with secondary vascular tissues.
increase of girth of a tree is due to the activity. produces secondary xylem
produces bark. lies outside the vascular cambium just inside the outer bark
specialized cells through which water and minerals move upward from the soil through the plant
tissue that carries organic nutrients including photosynthate, in particular, sucrose, innermost layer of the bark.
high cell dividing area; responsible for producing new buds and leaves in a uniform pattern at the terminus of the stem and laterally along stems
protection and maintenance of cell share; consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignins
-pores in cell wall for intercellular connection
-cells are connected via strands of cytoplasmic material
synthesis of ribosomes
serve as storage
generates ATP (energy), contains DNA
A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.
has stamens and pistils
plant hormone promotes seed germination
phenolic polymers, component in cell wall, providing stiffness
pollinator attracting compound in flowers, absorbing UV light
example of Aerial root
example of Pneumatophores
mangrove, spongy roots involved with gas exchange
example of tuber
example of rhizome
trises, some grasses
example of runner
-different maturation times between stamen and style
-stigma and pollen incompatible
caspar ian strip of the endodermis blocks the?
apoplectic transport route
plants that has thick cuticles, small leaves, lowstomati density and sunken stomata
cell wall function
-barrie between plant and outside environment
simple fruit example
advantages of self pollination
-maintains the parental character of purity of the race indefinitely
-maintain pure lines for hybridization experiments
-does not need to produce large number of pollen grains
-doesn't develop devices for attracting insect pollinators
-ensures seed production. used as fail safe device for cross-pollinated flowers
-no external agent
in botany involves cutting the seed coat using abrasion, thermal stress, or chemical to encourage germination
roots that develop from an organ other than an existing root
strawberry is actually and enlarged______?
plant species that has separate male and female individuals
Stomata are part of this tissue
Monocot stems have discrete regions of xylem and phloem arranged ___________________; herbaceous dicot stems have discrete regions of xylem and phloem arranged ______________.
randomly; in a ring
on a rubber tree where does latex come from
components of cel wall
Aerial roots have?
several epidermis layers to reduce water loss
roots that grow in water. roots extend above the water's surface and enhance gas exchange between atmosphere and subsurface roots
Pull plant deeper into soil (dandelions, Lilly bulbs)
stability in shallow soil (tropical trees)
Most have no chlorophyll and dependent on chlorophyll-bearing plants for nutrition
consists of one year's growth of xylem
this person first saw boxlike compartments with a simple microscope and named them cells
primary xylem and phloem
secondary growth of stems involves_____?
vascular cambium and cork cambium
where are enzymes synthesized?
epidermis (dermal tissue system)
ground meristem tissue
ground tissue (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma)
vascular tissue system
found in eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
chloroplast, mitochondria, nucleus
ground tissue involved with photosynthesis in leaves?
protects tissues from damage as root grows
this is a perennial plant that has triploids so that is cannot produce seed. can be used as fiber and biofuels because that stem contain lots of cellulose
Miscanthus x giganteus
chloroplasts and mitochondria evolved from small prokaryotes that were consumed by a larger eukaryotic cell.
found in compound leaf but not simple leaves
Stomata open when the water content of the guard cells increases (true or false)
a morphological adaptation to reduce water loss from the leaf?
densely hairy leaves
Root hairs are prominent in the _____.
Region of maturation
The epidermis of leaves normally is coated with _____.
plastids that contain high concentration of chlorophylls?
Prokaryotic cells are characteristic of bacteria; eukaryotic cells are characteristic of all other organisms including plants and animals. (true or False)
Cork Cambium produces tissues that function mainly in support and conduction. (true or false)
function of leaves
Casparian strips are composed primarily of suberin. (true or false)
Endoplasmic reticulum function
Proteins are synthesized on surface (ribosomes)
not a cross-pollination mechanism?
Synchronizing of stamen and style maturation times
fruits form from two or more carpels, each of which produces many seeds
legume or pod
pod—fruit from a single carpel which usually dehisces along both carpel sutures (seams
simple fruit made up of several carpels.
-The outer (edible) portion forms the hypanthium of the flower, which surrounds the multiple carpels
simple fruit derived from a single carpel
formed from an inferior ovary that develops from multiple carpels each bearing many seeds
several carpels with inner pulp juice sacs or vesicles enclosed in a leathery rind
pulpy fruit from one or more carpels that develops few to many seeds
-pepers, tomato, banans, grapes
are fruits containing only ovarian tissue
Accessory (false) fruit
is used if any nonovarian tissue is present
develops from several ovaries in either a single or multiple flower/s
Aggregate fruits (compound fruit)
has many small fruits each with a seed; develops from different ovaries of a single flower e.g. Strawberry
Multiple fruits (compound fruit)
with fruits of separate flowers merged or packed closely together e.g. Pineapple, Jackfruit, Breadfruit
A fruit derived from a single carpel, separate flower and can be: dry, fleshy, accessory.
examples of simple fruit
pepo (cucumber), citrus, tomato
Disadvantages of Self Pollination
-New useful characters are seldom introduced
-Vigor and vitality of the race decreases with prolonged self pollination
-Immunity to diseases decreases.
-Variability and hence adaptability to changed environment are reduced
Animal and Insect Pollinated
-Most flowers are radially symmetrical
-Flowers that coevolved with animals are often bilaterally symmetrical, like their pollinators
-Animal-pollinated flowers exhibit dramatic evolutionary changes
-Wind-pollinated flowers usually have no petals and reduced or absent sepals
-Huge numbers of pollen grains are produced to increase the chance of pollination
Dicots stem structure
vascular tissue forms continuous cylinder or ring of discrete bundles
many undergo secondary growth
Monocots stem structure
vascular bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue
no secondary growth
Bulbls (specialized stem)
Large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves, with a small stem at lower end
Rhizomes (specialized stem)
Horizontal stems that grow below-ground and have long to short internodes
Runners (specialized stem)
- Horizontal stems that grow above ground and have long internodes
Tubers (specialized stem)
- Swollen, fleshy, underground stem
Ramie (stem fibers)
-fibers are long strands in the inner bark of the ramie or China grass plant.
-A many-stemmed perennial shrub with slender shoots about 1" thick, up to 8 ft long, and heart-shaped leaves
Kenaf (stem fibers)
-The kenaf plant is a herbaceous annual with a strong taproot and a long, unbranched stem reaching a height of 5 to 15 ft.
-The plants require a growing season of 100 to 140 days with considerable moisture from rainfall or irrigation.
Hemp (stem fibers)
a seed-propagated herbaceous annual adapted to mild temperate zone climates
-Principle metabolite-conducting tissue: sugars, amino acids, lipids, micronutrients
-Also transports: proteins, RNA, hormones, viruses
Columella (in root cap)
perceives gravity and water potential gradients
-Mesophyll in leafs
-Cortex and pith of roots and stems
-Flesh of fruits
-Vertical strands in vascular tissue
-Horizontal strands in secondary vascular tissue
-capable of cell division
-Photosynthesis, storage, secretion, transport
-Supporting tissue of growing organs
-Discrete strands or continuous cylinders
-Beneath epidermis in stems and petiols
-Bordering veins in leaves (dicots)
-Continuous cell mass, small cell groups or individual cells
-Fibers - long slender cells, in strands or bundles (bast fibers from hemp, jute & flax)
-Sclereids - short, often branched cells (seed coats, nut shells, stone fruits)
-Thick, often lignified secondary walls
-Strengthening and supporting elements in plant parts no loner elongating
Vascular bundles in monocot stems
-scattered throughout the ground tissue
-develop from procambium
Transpiration is affected by_____?
-Humidity; during dry, less humid days the rate of transpiration increases
-Temperature; the rate of transpiration is greater on hot days than on cooler, cloudy days.
-Wind; the rate of transpiration is greater on windy days than calmer days.
-blade divided into leaflets
-Each leaflet has its petiolule
-Stomata and epidermal cells arranged in rows parallel with the long axis of the leaf
-veins bordered by fibers
mature ovules, varying considerably in size, shape, structure, and mode of dissemination
physiological changes lead to dormancy
-Number of organelles per cell falls
-Dehydration - water content falls
-Vacuoles in cells deflate
-Food reserves become dense crystalline bodies
propagation of seed must
-Protect the zygote against physically injury
-Store foods for seedling-- before it becomes independent
-Remain dormant to survive harsh environment
-Disperse the seeds to capitalize on their genetic variability
-Respond to environment cues and germinate at the right time and place
-Physical barriers The seed coat (testa) is waxy = waterproof and impermeable to oxygen
-Physical state - dehydrated
-Chemical inhibitors present e.g. salts, mustard oils, organic acids, alkaloids
-Growth promoters absent
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