41 terms

Psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
"Psyche" meaning
Greek word meaning soul, "butterfly"
"ology" meaning
the study of...
Subfields of Psychology
1) Biological
2) Clinical
3) Cognitive
4) Developmental
5) Personality
6) Social
7) Industrial-Organizational
8) Health
9) Sport & Exercise
10) Forensic
11) Evolutionary
Empirical Method
method for acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory and an explanation
critical thinking
identifying a biases
scientific study
The use of empirical methods to identify relationships between variables.
Scientific theory
broad explanation of the natural world supported by evidence overtime
Five Factor Model
Trait theory of personality that includes
1) openness
2) conscientiousness
3) extroversion
4) agreeableness
5) neuroticism.
psychologist
Ph.D. ; 4-5 years of grad school; can't prescribe medication
psychiatrist
M.D; medical school + 3-year residency; can prescribe
basic research
pure research that aims to confirm an existing theory
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Psychology Research Methods
1) Experiments
2) Correlation Research
Experiments
comparisons between 2 different groups, before and after effects of one group
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated (doing the effect); the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
cofounding variables
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment (does not change)
experimental conclusion
experiments that are a test of the hypothesis
experiments that are not possible if they are...
unethical or not possible
correlational research
the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables or a population
Positive relation
As one quantity increases, the other quantity increases. As one quantity decreases, the other quantity decreases.
negative relation
As one quantity increases, the other quantity decreases. As one quantity decreases, the other quantity increases.
zero relation
no relation between two variables
Correlation scale
closer to zero the more spread out, closer to 1 tighter to the line

1.00 - perfect

.60-.90 - strong

.30-.59 - weak moderate

.01-.29 - weak

0 - no correlation
Debriefing
to explain to participants what the significance of the experiment was
Cross-setional
gathering of data from different groups
falsifiable
able to be disproven by experimental results
longitudinal study
A research approach that follows a group of people over time to determine change
archival research
method of research using past records or data sets to answer various research questions (no subject needed)
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
clinical or case study
observational research study focusing on one or a few people
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
deception
misleading participants about the purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
committee that reviews proposals for research involving human participants
Illusory
false, imagined
bias
A particular preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific (one-sided)
analysis
A detailed examination .