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Covers osmosis, diffusion, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, tonicity, passive transport, active transport, etc. ***THIS IS ONLY SECTION 3


movement of particles (gas, liquid, solid) from a region of high concentration ([ ]) to a region of low concentration


When the [ ] of the molecules of a substance is the same throughout a space


diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane, from an area of greater [ ] to an area of lesser [ ]


relative solute concentration of 2 fluids


having fewer solutes; more water


equal amounts of solute and water


having more solutes; less water

turgor pressure

the amount of water in a plant cell;
water enters >> high _______ >> cell rigid
water leaves >> low ________>> cell shrinks


plant cells result in shrinking due to hypotonic conditions


animal cells result in swelling due to hypotonic conditions

concentration gradient

the difference in [ ] of a substance across a space

contractile vacuole

cavity in the cytoplasm of some protists that collects water and discharges it from the cell

faciliated diffusion

diffusion through transport or carrier proteins; no nrg is required and it works in either direction

gated channels

proteins that allow charged atoms through a cell

passive transport

this does not require energy inout from a cell; two types are diffusion and osmosis

active transport

this requires energy input from a cell and enables a cell to move a substance against its concentration gradient; is powered by chemical energy (ATP); occurs through transport protein pumps

sodium-potassium pump

3 Na ions with a cell are exchanged for 2 K ions outside the cell; causes build up of positive electrical charges on outside of the cell creating membrane potential, which is needed for nerve impulses to operate


process of taking material into the cell


process of expelling material from the cell


process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell; type of endocytosis


process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment; type of endocytosis

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