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21 terms

[Wozadlo- Biology] Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function

Covers osmosis, diffusion, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, tonicity, passive transport, active transport, etc. ***THIS IS ONLY SECTION 3
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diffusion
movement of particles (gas, liquid, solid) from a region of high concentration ([ ]) to a region of low concentration
equilibrium
When the [ ] of the molecules of a substance is the same throughout a space
osmosis
diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane, from an area of greater [ ] to an area of lesser [ ]
tonicity
relative solute concentration of 2 fluids
hypotonic
having fewer solutes; more water
isotonic
equal amounts of solute and water
hypertonic
having more solutes; less water
turgor pressure
the amount of water in a plant cell;
water enters >> high _______ >> cell rigid
water leaves >> low ________>> cell shrinks
plasmolysis
plant cells result in shrinking due to hypotonic conditions
cytolysis
animal cells result in swelling due to hypotonic conditions
concentration gradient
the difference in [ ] of a substance across a space
contractile vacuole
cavity in the cytoplasm of some protists that collects water and discharges it from the cell
faciliated diffusion
diffusion through transport or carrier proteins; no nrg is required and it works in either direction
gated channels
proteins that allow charged atoms through a cell
passive transport
this does not require energy inout from a cell; two types are diffusion and osmosis
active transport
this requires energy input from a cell and enables a cell to move a substance against its concentration gradient; is powered by chemical energy (ATP); occurs through transport protein pumps
sodium-potassium pump
3 Na ions with a cell are exchanged for 2 K ions outside the cell; causes build up of positive electrical charges on outside of the cell creating membrane potential, which is needed for nerve impulses to operate
endocytosis
process of taking material into the cell
exocytosis
process of expelling material from the cell
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell; type of endocytosis
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment; type of endocytosis