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movement of particles (gas, liquid, solid) from a region of high concentration ([ ]) to a region of low concentration
diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane, from an area of greater [ ] to an area of lesser [ ]
the amount of water in a plant cell;
water enters >> high _______ >> cell rigid
water leaves >> low ________>> cell shrinks
cavity in the cytoplasm of some protists that collects water and discharges it from the cell
diffusion through transport or carrier proteins; no nrg is required and it works in either direction
this does not require energy inout from a cell; two types are diffusion and osmosis
this requires energy input from a cell and enables a cell to move a substance against its concentration gradient; is powered by chemical energy (ATP); occurs through transport protein pumps
3 Na ions with a cell are exchanged for 2 K ions outside the cell; causes build up of positive electrical charges on outside of the cell creating membrane potential, which is needed for nerve impulses to operate
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell; type of endocytosis
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