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3 contrasts used to classify or analyze sound
mathematical analysis performed on complex sound to identify its frequency or spectral components
what can we predict regarding the amplitude of harmonics above F0
amplitude decreases in intensity as harmonics increase in frequency
resonant frequency definition
a particular frequency that passes best through an object - sets an object into vibration
*more mass = lower resonant freq.
*more stiffness = higher resonant freq.
*longer = lower resonant freq.
cut-off frequency definition
the freq values above, below or between which the filter passes the sinusoidal components w/o reducing their amplitudes *essentially, where attentuation begins
jaw, tongue, lips, velum (velopharyngeal port) - all direct sound into the resonating cavities and change their shape are size
pharyngeal cavity, oral cavity, chest cavity and nasal cavity - all shape the spectrum of the glottal source
complex periodic sounds
vowels, diphthongs, nasals, glides, liquids, voiced fricatives, voiced plosives and voiced affricates
complex aperiodic: noise
voiceless fricatives, voiceless affricates, voiced fricatives, voiced affricates
3 contributions to the acoustic speech product
1. glottal source
2. transfer function
3. radiated sound wave
transfer function definition
filtering of the glottal source as a result of the vocal tract resonances
a component frequency of a complex wave that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency
vocal tract resonances corresponding to peaks in the transfer function and radiated output spectrum (F1, F2, F3) - *a group of enhanced harmonics
vowels that change in location and degree of constriction over the course of production - *2 vowels together that move rapidly from one to the other
how does F3 participate in consonant differentiation?
placement of tongue tip (fine tongue tip movement differences)
primary acoustic features on a stop/plosive
noise spike that occurs (on spectrogram) when sound "explodes" in sound production
tube resonance relation to fundamental freq
the longer the tube (lip rounding) lowers the formants because tube is lengthened
NASAL manner of articulation
HARMONICS/NO NOISE; RELATIVELY LOW FREQUENCY ENERGY; LOW FREQUENCY RESONANCE
VOT (voice onset time)
duration (or time) between plosion/noise spike & onset of the vowel *is longer for voiceless plosives than for voiced plosives
periodic sound criteria
-the freq content is specific
-the waveform repeats itself
-may be simple or complex
aperiodic sound criteria
-freq content may be random
-randomly distributed frequencies may appear within a specified range
-the waveform does not repeat
transient noise criteria
-the signal has a beginning and an end
-acoustic results of suddenly stopping and starting are a splattering of the signal across a broad range of frequencies
-working definition - very brief acoustic signals
*usually a sound that is short in duration and when it stops there is a splattering of frequencies (ex: clap, /k/, /p/, /t/
continuous sound criteria
-definitions - the signal has no beginning or and end - the signal has "ramped" or shaped beginning and end points to avoid transient effects
-may be simple or complex
*starts and stops but not very fast; ramps up (ex: "sh" and "ah")
complex aperiodic: transient
voiceless plosives, voiceless affricates, voiced plosives, voiced affricates
voiceless affricate - ch, (acoustic features)
complex aperiodic: noise and complex aperiodic: transient
voiced plosives - b, g, d (acoustic features)
complex periodic (briefly), complex aperiodic: transient
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