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Terms in this set (27)
Flow of blood through the heart
Superior/Inferior vena cava-Right Atrium-Tricuspid valve-Right Ventricle-Pulmonary Semilunar valve-Pulmonary Trunk-Lungs-Pulmonary Veins-Left Atrium- Bicuspid valve- Left Ventricle-Aortic Semilunar Valve-Aorta-Lower/Upper body
Where is the PMI?
5th intercostal space on the midline, a little to the left
Electrical impulses in the heart travel from?
SA node-AV node-bundle of his-Right and Left bundle branches- Purkinje Fibers
What is cardiac output?
Amount of blood pumped by either of the ventricles during a given period of time
Easiest way to measure cardiac output?
What is the stroke volume?
amount of blood ejected with each heart beat
What is preload?
Amount of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole
What is afterload?
The resistance to flow the ventricles must overcome to open the semilunar valves and eject it's contents
What is contractility?
The force of the mechanical contraction
Important parts of health history during cardiovascular assessment?
What brings you to the hospital today? Medications that may affect heart health. Chest pain (quality, location, SOB, duration), smoking history, recent stress, history of stroke, MI, HTN, edema, high cholesterol, diabetes, etc.
Calculation for cardiac output?
stroke volume x heart rate
Normal sinus rhythm starts in the?
If the SA nose fails, what takes over?
If the AV node fails what takes over?
Bundle of His. This can only last a short time.
Non-Modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
Family History, increasing age, gender, women hitting menopause
Modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
Hypertension, elevated blood sugar, obesity, hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, smoking, and stress
Order of cardiac assessment
Appearance (cyanosis, JVD, Chest size shape and symmetry), assessment of vital signs, assessment of capillary refill, assess radial pulses, auscultate heart rate and rhythm, auscultate lung sounds, assess pedal pulses and pedal edema.
What is the first sound you hear on heart auscultation?
S1- the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves
What is the second sound you hear when You auscultate heart sounds?
S2- closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves
Scale for staging peripheral pulses
1+=diminished, barely palpable
4+=bounding and cannot be obliterated, can see without feeling
Signs and symptoms of venous insufficiency?
Color- normal, red, or brown
Skin changes-brown pigmentation around ankles
Pain-yes, with ambulation
Signs and symptoms of arterial insufficiency?
Color- pale or dusky red
Pulse- decreased or absent
Edema- none or mild
Skin changes- thin, shiny, decreased hair growth, thickened nails
Pain- yes, with ambulation
MONA for chest pain?
(Not necessarily in this order)
If your patient starts experiencing chest pain what do you do?
MONA, stat EKG, cardiac enzymes, call MD
When does CHF occur?
When the heart muscle doesn't pump blood as well as it should or when it doesn't relax long enough
Left sided heart failure signs and symptoms?
Crackles, SOB, decreased SpO2, edema, JVD, activity intolerance, and fatigue
Right sided heart failure signs and symptoms?
Edema, activity intolerance, JVD, and fatigue. No lung symptoms.
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