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Memory

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memory
the process by which we encode, store, and retrive information
encoding
the process of recording information in a for usable to memory
storage
the maintenance of material saved in memory
retrieval
when material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful
sensory memory
the initial momentary storage of information lasting only an instant
short term memory
memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds
long term memory
memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve
iconic memory
reflects information from the visual system
echoic memory
stores auditory information coming from the ears
chunk
a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory
rehersal
the repition of information that has entered short term memory
working memory
a set of active temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information
central executive
processor involved in reasoning and decison making
visual store
specializes in visual and spatial information
verbal store
holds and manipulates material relating to speech, words and numbers
episodic buffer
contains information that represents episodes or events
serial position effect
the ability to recall information in a list depending on where in the list an item appears
primary effect
items presented early in a list are remembered better
recency effect
items presented late in a list are remembered best
declarative memory
memory for factual information: names faces dates and the like
procedural memory
memory for skills and habits such as riding a bike, hitting a baseball and sometimes reffered to as nondeclarative memory
semantic memory
memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts
episodic memory
memory for events that occur in a particular time, place or context
semantic networks
mental representations of clusters and interconnected information
spreading activation
activating one memory triggers the activation of realted memories in a process
engram
the term for the physical memory trace that corresponds to a memory
hippocampus
plays a central role in the consolidation of memories
medial temporal lobes
acts as neurological e-mail system; where information is passed along to the brains cortex
amygdala
involved in memories involving emotion
long term potentiation
shows that certain neural pathways become easily excited when a new response is being learned
consolidation
memories become fixed and stable in long term memory
tip-of-the-tongue phenom
the inabilty to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retriving information from long term memory
recall
memory task in which specific information must be retrieved
recognition
memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of elternatives
levels-of-processing theory
the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed
explicit memory
intentional or conscious recollection of information
implicit memory
memories of which people are not conscioulsy aware but which can affect subsequently performance and behavior
priming
a phenom in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related information even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept
flashbulb memories
memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid as id they represented a snapshot of an event
source amnesia
occurs when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it before
constructive processes
processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events
schemas
organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored and recalled
repressed memories
recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious
false memories
develop when people are unable to recall the source of a memory of a particualar event about which they have only vague recollections
autobiographical memories
our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives
decay
the loss of information in memory through its nonuse
memory traces
the physical changes that take place in the brain when new material is learned
interferance
the phenom by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information
cue-dependent forgetting
forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory
proactive interferance
interference in ehich information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
retroacitve interference
interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material.
Alzheimers disease
an illness characterized in part by sever memory problems
Amnesia
memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties
retrograde amnesia
amnesia in which memory is lost for occurances prior to a certain event
anterograde amnesia
amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury
Korsakoff's syndrome
a disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story