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Genes on the same chromosome are physically linked. The closer genes are the more likely their allele will be transmitted as units
____Creates recombinant combination of alleles from different genes on the same chromosome
The larger your sample, the closer your observed values are expected to match the___________
Chi Square test
measures "goodness of fit" between expected to match the predicted values, accounts for sample, or the size of the experimental population
observed values are not different from the expected values ex- no linkage or 1:1:1:1 ratio
observed values are different from expected values ex. genes are linked, deviation from 1:1:1:1
1909 Frans Janssens
observed chiasmata, regions in which nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes cross over each other
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Suggested that chiasmata were sites of chromosome breakage and change resulting in genetic recombination
genetic recombination depends on the__ of parts between maternal and paternal chromosomes
point of reference to determine if a particular progeny were results of recombination
Percent of recombination or recombination frequency reflects the distance separating genes
Linked genes lead to a larger number of parental classes than expected in double______
Limitations of two point crosses
-difficult to determine gene order if close together
-act dist between gene don't always add up
-pairwise crosses time and labor consuming
Distance and physical markers
-double, triple and more crossovers
- 50% RF observable in a cross
-variation across chromo in rate of recomb
Shifting of the chiasmata from the original position at the centromere toward the chromosome end or telemore
reshuffled combination of alleles that were not present in the parental generation
phenotype that reflect a previously existing parental combination of genes that is retained during gamete formation
unit of measure for RF or 1 cM is equal to 1% chance that a maker at one genetic locus will be separated due to cross over
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