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US History Fall Benchmark Review
Terms in this set (52)
Refers to the British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of trade laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England. England will eventually abandon this after the French and Indian War, which upset the colonists.
Baron von Steuben
A Prussian (German) General-- he readied the American soldiers at Valley Forge. He instilled discipline in the troops and taught them new fighting techniques (such as using the bayonet).
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
the branch of government that carries out laws
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of natural resources from their colonies.
Made money by having slaves grow cash crops on plantations due to rich soil and warm climate.
Group of colonies founded which had small farms, good producing grains. It was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of all colonial groups.
New England Colonies
Group of colonies founded primarily for religious reasons. Known for ship building and trade.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies. Many died along the way.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the 18th century in which a number of new Protestant churches were established. It also led many to question authority and spread democratic ideas.
House of Burgesses
First elected assembly in colonial Virginia, created in 1618.
1765; this tax led to colonists protesting-- shouting, "Taxation without representation!"
Cause of the French and Indian War
Ohio River Valley
Effects of the French and Indian War
*Britain gains all land EAST of the Miss. R
*Proclamation of 1763 limited colonial settlement into western land
*Britain began to tax colonists
member of the Continental Congress, forefather of the U.S., great negotiator with France
English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights. Intellectual source for Declaration of Independence.
Lexington and Concord
Known as the "Shot Heard 'Round the World" -- first battle of the Revolutionary War
The turning point of the American Revolution. France decided to help the Americans.
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition, Steuben comes and trains troops
Crossing the Delaware
In December 1776 Washington secretly led his troops across a river to launch a surprise attack on the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner.
1781; last battle of the revolution; Benedict Arnold, Cornwallis and Washington; colonists won because British were surrounded and they surrendered
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party
Treaty of Paris 1783
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during and a few years after the Revolutionary War. This was during the "Critical years."
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
-no federal leader (to lead the country)
-no national taxes (no ability to gain national revenue to pay for national interests)
-no federal court system (no ability to settle disputes between states)
-lack of strong federal government
-no power to regulate commerce
-limited military = no protection
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. Shows the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house. It created a bicameral legislature.
agreement between northern and southern states providing that every five enslaved persons would count as three free citizens for the purpose of representation in the House of Representatives
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution granted state and individual rights
Supported a strong central government and ratification of the Constitution
people who were opposed to ratifying the new Constitution b/c they wanted a weak federal govt.
collection of writings about why states should ratify the Constitution
Major success of the Articles of Confederation. Law that described how new territory in the Ohio River Valley was to be governed and new states would be added to the union.
Banned slavery in the New territory.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S. It helped to pay off debts from the American Revolution.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834). Played a pivotal role in Valley Forge and Yorktown.
He was a member of committee of five, and was a key diplomat to Europe during the American Revolution. Later became president.
Commander of the Continental Army, later president.
George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards
both prominent parishoners during the Great Awakening
French philosopher that proposed the idea of separation of powers
Sons of Liberty
A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution. Responsible for Boston Tea Party.
Daughters of Liberty
This organization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. It was a letter writing campaign.
Proclomation of 1763
Prohibited colonial migration and settlement west of the Appalachian mountains.
Contributions of African Culture to America
* Variety of Foods
*Music & Dance
Women during the American Revolution
*Served as spies
*Created homemade goods to make colonies more self-efficient
Causes of the American Revolution
2. Enforcement of Navigation Acts
3. British Demands for Colonists to pay for cost of French and Indian War.
4. Oppression by King
5. Interference of Parliament in Colonial Affairs.
6. No Representation in Parliament.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted freedom from Britain. Composed by the Committee of Five
Committee of Five
Chosen to create a document that gave reasons for separation from England (Declaration of Independence); Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston
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