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Principles of Life- Vocab.
Terms in this set (52)
individual living things
a polymer made up of nucleotides; specialized for the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information; DNA and RNA are this
The basic unit of structure and function in living things
unicellular organisms that do not have nuclei
Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and cyanobacteria, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to convert CO2 into organic compounds
Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principle product is lactic acid.
in cells, the centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double membrane and contains chromosomes
Organisms whose cells contain their genetic material inside a nucleus. Includes all life other than the viruses, archaea, and bacteria.
symbiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other.
Powerhouse of the cell
Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
enabled multicellular eukaryotes to increase in size and become more efficient at gathering resources and adapting to specific environments
The complete DNA sequence for a particular organism or individual.
a change in the genetic material not caused by recombination
A family tree that shows the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms
tree of life
a family tree of organisms
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
Domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei
A species that is widely studied experimentally to understand general principles about biology.
a group of similar cells organized into a functional unit; integrated with other tissues to form part of an organ
a body part, such as the heart, liver, brain, root, or leaf, that is composed of two or more tissues integrated to preform a distinct function
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
one or more organisms and the abiotic and biotic environment with which they interact
a group of individuals of the same species that live, interact, and reproduce together in a particular geographic area
the assemblages of interacting individuals of different species within a particular geographic area
An ecological system consisting of multiple ecological communities within a geographical area larger than the area occupied by a single community.
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
A group of parts that work together as a whole
The interacting parts of a biological system
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
a type of control that acts to reduce differences that arise between the level of a controlled variable eand its set-point level
an analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions
A system in which the interactions among components are expressed as mathematical functions
The basic chemical unit in nucleic acids, consisting of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
long-chain polymer of amino acids with twenty different side chains
The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same population
any gradual change
a particular structure, physiological process, or behavior that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce
the immediate genetic, physiological, neurological, and developmental explanations for the advantages of an adaptation
the historical explanations of the processes that led to the evolution of an adaptation
a well-tested explanation
An observation about nature, obtained outside of a formal hypothesis-testing context, that provides the basis for further investigation
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time.
compares unmanipulated data gathered from different sources
A factor that can change in an experiment
In statistics, the premise that any differences observed in an experiment are simply the result of random differences that arise from drawing two finite samples from the same population
quantified observations about a system under study
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