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A Morbid state
Signs and Symptoms
Damage to host cells
Decrease cell function
Increased immune response
Suppression of the immune system
Infections caused by normal flora
Often occurs when microbe is introduced into a sterile area of the body or is moved from its normal location in the body.
Nosocomial Infections (Cont'd)
Usually refers to infections acquired by patients during hospitalization
But also refers to infections acquired by medical personnel
(2) Congenital diseases
structural and functional defects present at birth
*Microbial exception: several microbes (bacteria, protozoa, viruses) can cause congenital diseases
(3) Degenerative diseases
disorders affecting one or more body systems that develop as a patient ages
*Microbial exception: Infection with prions
(4) Nutritional deficiencies
diseases that result from the lack of specific nutrients; may be due to poor diet or may be inherited as a genetic defect.
*Microbial exception: helminths and parasite load
(6) Mental diseases
mostly due to emotional or psychological factors, including biochemical imbalance.
*Microbial exception: herpes and schizophrenia
(7) Immunological diseases
diseases of the immune system; include allergies, autoimmune disease, immunodeficiency,
*Microbial exception: HIV infection and AIDS
(8) Neoplastic diseases
abnormal cell growth that leads to the formation of tumors (benign or malignant)
*Microbial exception: HPV and cervical cancer; EBV and Burkitt's lymphoma
(9) Iatrogenic disease
caused by medical procedures or treatments, surgical errors, and/or drug interactions;
*Microbial exception: nosocomial infections
The study of how diseases are spread.
Examines the frequency and distribution of disease and other health-related problems within human populations
The study of diseased states
The study of the structural and functional manifestations of disease
A branch of medicine that examines the nature of disease, how the disease is manifested, and changes to the body that occur as a result of disease
objective evidence of disease
characteristics of a disease that can be observed by someone else; objective
Morbidity Sign Examples
subjective evidence of disease
characteristics of disease that can only be determined [experienced] by the patient
Morbidity Symptoms Examples
Shortness of breath
combination of signs and symptoms that occur together and are indicative of a disease or abnormal condition
Signs of Inflammation
Granulomas (small mass or nodule of inflamed tissue)
Abscesses (A collection of pus in a tissue, cavity or confined area)
The process of determining the cause of the disease
Commonly involves the use of chemical or immunological tests
The projected outcome of a disease
The prospect of recovery from a disease
The recovery success (or a lack thereof) is based on the nature (pathology) of the disease
any organism that obtains its nutrients from another living organism.
Often an obligate relationship
the parasite lives in the extracellular spaces between cells, on the cell surface, etc.
Pathogenicity depends on
e.g. capsule, outer membrane
e.g. resistance genes
Exogenous (pathogen sources)
Exogenously acquired infections results from encounters with pathogens in the environment
Endogenous (pathogen sources)
Endogenously acquired infections are caused by pathogens or potential pathogens in or on the body.
Infection Alternate Definition
Deviation from a healthy state that is caused and maintained by microorganisms
Signs and symptoms (S/S) make take a long time to develop
S/S are persistent and lasts over long periods
The microbe persists in host tissues for long periods of time; the disease alternates between an acute and a subclinical state.
May not be observed by clinical examination, although laboratory tests may confirm the presence of pathogens.
May not be detectable by laboratory tests
Systemic (generalized) Infection
microorganism circulates throughout body and infect many different tissues; e.g., measles, typhoid
Signs of Infection On Skin
Pus formation (purulence)
Discoloration (hypo- or hyper- pigmentation)
Signs Of Infection Systemic
Vision loss (blindness)
Double vision (diplopia)
Time from the first exposure to the pathogen to the time symptoms become apparent
Length of incubation period varies considerably for some microorganisms
length of the incubation stage
Pathogenicity of the infecting microbe
Health of the patient
Generation time of the pathogen
Site of infection
A short period before specific symptoms set in where the patient feels general discomfort (headache, joint pain, muscle ache)
Not all illnesses have a prodromal period
Period of Invasion
Pathogen multiplying, producing toxins, etc.
Signs and symptoms can include cough, rash, diarrhea, etc.
Immune system is responding to pathogen
The gradual return to a normal or healthy state
The patient's immune system, over time, has been able to contain and eliminate the infective agent
Signs of disease subside
High level of immunological molecules, e.g. antibodies
The patient either recovers or the disease is fatal
Convalescent period (Recovery)
Signs and symptoms abate and patient starts to feel better
Affected tissues and systems are repaired
the amount of damage the infecting microbe did to the body
The condition of the patient's immune system before and during infection
The nature of the pathogen
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