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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Period One Key - Marty Koegel
Terms in this set (14)
The spread of maize cultivation from present-day Mexico northward into the present-day American Southwest and beyond supported economic development, settlement, advanced irrigation, and social diversification among societies.
Three Sister Farming
- allows for food surplus, increases population a frees up people to be more than farmers (allows for artisans, soldiers, priests, kinds)
- Supported Aztec and Mayan pyramid building, Mississippi Valley mound builders, Pueblo cultures of Chaco Canyon
Societies responded to the aridity of the Great Basin and the grasslands of the western Great Plains by developing largely mobile lifestyles.
- Spanish into of horse transformed Plains Indians (became hunters)
- Bison herds mire easily hunted
In the Northeast, the Mississippi River Valley, and along the Atlantic seaboard some societies developed mixed agricultural and hunter-gatherer economies that favored the development of permanent villages.
- Three Sisters allowed for mound-building (Cahokia) in Mississippi Valley
- Eastern Woodlands kept hunting
- Food surpluses allowed permanent villages and leaders like Powhatan
Societies in the Northwest and present day California supported themselves by hunting and gathering, and in some areas developed settled communities supported by the vast resources of the ocean.
- California little surplus, tribes were small, hunter gatherer groups
- Pacific Northwest tremendous abundance of fishing
- Pacific Northwest large populations, status determined but giving away wealth at potlatch feasts
European nations' efforts to explore and conquer the New World stemmed from a search for new sources of wealth, economic and military competition, and a desire to spread Christianity.
- Portugals acquisition of slaves, gold, ivory, and trade with India led to other countries challenging them for control
Cortes and Pizarros successes over Aztecs and Incas drove desire to copy them, for gold and to convert Protestant and Catholic faiths
The Columbian Exchange brought new crops to Europe from the Americas, stimulating European population growth, and new sources of mineral wealth, which facilitated the European shift from feudalism to capitalism.
- Corn and potato made a European population explode, increase migration, colonization, and imperialism
- Gold and silver made a surplus allowing development of capitalism in Europe and China , global trade network, first true money since Roman Empire
Improvements in maritime technology and more organized methods for conducting such international trade, such as joint-stock companies, helped drive changes to the economies in Europe and the Americas.
- Muslim astrolabe, better navigation
- Cash crops desire exploration
- African slave provided capital and labor source
- Joint Stock decreased risk for individuals, make colonization possible for English and Dutch
Spanish exploration and conquest of the Americas were accompanied and furthered by widespread deadly epidemics that devastated native populations and by the introduction of crops and animals not found in the Americas.
- Disease was the most important factor in the Spanish conquering
- 90% of Natives died from diseases mainly small pocks
- Dogs and Horses play a part
- Pigs were set lose and devastated the crops
- European weeds hurt native farming
- Cattle also destroyed native vegetation, eventually replaced bison
In the encomienda system, Spanish colonial economies marshaled Native American labor to support plantation-based agriculture and extract precious metals and other resources.
- The encomienda system was american feudalism, Spanish on top
- Native labor was forced like in mines
- The encomienda was used by Father Juniper Serra to construct missions in cali (1769 began out of period. 1)
European traders partnered with some West African groups who practiced slavery to forcibly extract slave labor for the Americas. The Spanish imported enslaved Africans to labor in plantation agriculture and mining.
- Portuguese replaced Arabs in the slave trade, replaced by dutch then English
- Africans captured other Africans and sold them into slavery
- stopped using natives because of disease, switched to Africans
The Spanish developed a caste system that incorporated, and carefully defined the status of, the diverse population of Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans in their empire.
- "casta" system had social hierarchy
- on top were peninsulares (Spanish born) then creoles (spanish born in America) then mestizos (spanish and native) mulattos (euro african) zambos (africans and native) then enslaved
Mutual misunderstandings between Europeans and Native Americans often defined the early years of interaction and trade as each group sought to make sense of the other. Over time, Europeans and Native Americans adopted some useful aspects of each other's culture.
- Montezuma thought cortez was a god
- didn't understand selling land, didn't think it was permanent (dutch, Manhattan)
- Native men hunted, women farmed
- Natives adopted the 3 sister farming in Chesapeake and new England
- Natives adopted, knives, pots and weapons
- Natives learned European languages and converted to Christianity
As European encroachments on Native Americans' lands and demands on their labor increased, native peoples sought to defend and maintain their political sovereignty, economic prosperity, religious beliefs, and concepts of gender relations through diplomatic negotiations and military resistance.
- The Aztecs resisted Cortés
- tried bribing them, then let disease kill them
- Incas fought back against pizarro
- Powhatan "adopted" John Smith (after 1607)
- Pocahonts married John Rolfe (after 1607)
- Opechancanough arranged a sneak attack on Jamestown and the English in 1622, and almost succeeded in wiping them out [after 1607]
- Native Americans took advantage of the European desire for furs
- Iroquois Confederacy made the British and English fight each other
Extended contact with Native Americans and Africans fostered a debate among European religious and political leaders about how non-Europeans should be treated, as well as evolving religious, cultural, and racial subjugation of Africans and Native Americans.
- Columbus seizing Native Americans and enslaving them, on the model of African slavery from Portugal
- Spanish forcing catholicism
- Bartolome de las Casas demanding Native Americans were Christians and shouldn't be treated as slaves, use Africans instead
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