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designating qualities or characteristics apart from specific objects or events; it is the opposite of concrete
a narrative, either in verse or prose, in which character, action, and sometimes setting represent abstract concepts apart from the literal meaning of a story. The underlying meaning usually has a moral, social, religious, or political significance, and the characters are often personifications of abstract ideas such as charity, hope, greed, and so on.
the repetition of initial identical consonant sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables, especially stressed syllables.
a process of reasoning that assumes if two subjects share a number of specific observable qualities then they may be expected to share qualities that have not beenobserved; the process of drawing a comparison between two things based on a partial similarity of like features
one of the devices of repetition in which the same expression is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences
anticipating audience response
a rhetprocal technique often used to convince an audience is that of anticipating and stating the arguments that one's opponent is likely to give and then answering these arguemnts even before the opponent had a chance to voice them
a figure of speech characterized by strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences, or ideas, as in "Man proposes, God disposes"; a balancing of one term against another for emphasis
a figure of speech in which someone (usually, bu not always absent), some abstract quality, or a nonexistent personage is directly addressed as though present
the techniques a writer uses to create and reveal fictional personalities in a work of literature, by describing the character's appearance, actions, thoughts, and feelings
a type of balance in which the second part is balanced against the first but with the part reversed
a method of sorting, grouping, collecting, and analyzing things by categories based on features shared by al members of a class or group
a method of breaking down an entire whole into separate parts or sorting a group of items into nonoverlapping categories
words or phrases characteristic or appropriate ot ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing
a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause
an elaborate and surprising figure of speech comparing two very dissimilar things; usually involves intellectual cleverness and ingenuity
a method of argumentation in which the speaker or writer defends her own views and /or attacks the view of others
the specific, exact meaning of a word, independent of its emotional colorationor associations
the emotional implications the words may carry, as distinguished from their denotative meanings
the choice of words in a work of literature and an element of style important to the work's effectiveness
the omossion of a word or words necessary for complete construction, but understood in the context
exploiting the readers' feelings of pity or fear to make a case; this fallacy draws solely on the readers' pathos and not on logic
the most subtle and often the most powerful becuase it comes from the character and reputation. not words
the substitution of an inoffensive, indirect, or agreeable expression for a word or phrase perceived as socially unacceptable of unnecessarily harsh
writing that seeks to clarify, expkain, or inform using one or several of the following methods: process analysis, definition, classification and division, comparision and contrast, and cause-and-effect analysis
the use of words outside their literal or usual meanings, used to add freshness and suggest associations and comparisons that create effective images; includes elements of speech such as hyperbole, irony, metaphor, personification, and simile
a figure of speech in which conscious exaggeration is used without the intent of literal persuasion
the use of language to cnvey sensory experience, most often through the creation of pictorial images through figurative language
a use of words, a grammatic construction peculiar ot a given language, or an expresion taht cannot be translated literally into a second language
usually refers to a specialized language providing a shorthand method of quick communication between in the same field; often used to disguise the inner working of a particular trade or profession from public scrutiny
lend opponent some credit for ideas; can persuade audience that she is fair; strengthens argument
a form of understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite
methods of pseudoreasoning that may occur accidentally or may be intentionally contrived to lend plausibility to an unsound argument; include: a shift in definition, ad hominem, begging the question, false analogy, non equitur, red herring, slippery slope, straw man
failure to provide evidence showing that one event will lead to a chain of events of a catastrophe nature
a sentence grammaticaly complete at some point (or points) before the end; opposite of periodic sentence
a term used for a dramatic poem in which the form of drama is used to expres lyric themes (author's own emotions or ideas of life) instead of relying on a story as the basis of the action
a figure of speech characterized by the subsitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself
a self-contradictory combination of words or smaller verbal units; usually noun-noun, adjective-adjective, adjective-noun, adverb-adverb, or adverb-verb
a phrase or statement that while seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well-founded or true
the arrangement of parts of a sentence, sentences, paragraphs, and larger units of cmposition that one element of equal importance with another is similarly developed and phrased
a sentence not grammatically complete before its end; opposite of a loose sentence
point of view
a term used in the analsis and criticism of fiction to describe the wayin which the reader is presented with the materials of the story or, regarded from another angle, the vantage point from which the author presents the actions of the story
a method of clarifying the nature of something by explaining how its works in separate, easy-to-understand steps
a rhetorical device reiterating a word or phrase, or rewording the same idea, to secure emphasis
a technique that ridicules both people and societal institutions, using iron wit, and exaggeration
the author's characteristic manner of expression; includes: the types of words used, their placement, and distinctive features of tone, imagery, figurative, language, sound, and rhythm
something concrete (such as an object, person, place, or event) that stands for or represents something abstract (such as sn idea, quality, concept, or sondition)
a type of figurative language in which the whole is used for the part of the part used for the whole
the pattern or structure of the word order in a sentence or phrase: the study of grammatical structure
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