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Critical Phases of Life: book questions
Terms in this set (67)
explain how and when fertilization takes place?
the union of a sperm and egg. usually takes place between 6th and 21st day of cycle, but can happen whenever.
distinguish between/explain monozygote vs dizygote twins?
mono: one egg and one sperm that was cleaved to form two IDENTICAL twins. same genes.
di: two different eggs and two different sperm that have different genes but similar.
give reasons for the increase in multiple births in the united states?
increase in fertility pills and delayed childbearing pregnancies.
describe the structure of DNA and its role in the inheritance of characteristics?
double stranded helix connected by bases A,T,C and G. carries genetic information that is passed down to the next offspring.
distinguish between meiosis and mitosis?
meiosis: SEX cells. starting with 46 chromosomes and dividing to have only 23 chromosomes.
mitosis: somatic cells. starting with 46 chromosomes and dividing to end up with 46.
explain why the sperm normally determines a baby's sex and discuss possible complication factors?
the sperm carries the chromosome for the sex, either male (Y) or female (X).
possible complication factors: genes that need activation to develop specific sex characteristics depend on these chromosomes.
tell how dominant inheritance and recessive inheritance work, and why most normal traits are not the products of simple dominant or recessive transmission?
dominant: inheriting a dominant allele (D) from either both parents or one parent, and expressing that trait physically.
recessive: inheriting two recessive alleles from each parent (d) and expressing that trait physically.
explain how epigenesis and genome imprinting occur and give examples.
epigenesis: activation/deactivation of genes based on environmental/behavioral factors. EX: genetically musically talented kid being influenced by parents to take music lessons.
genome imprinting: certain genes turned on depending f you inherit them from mother or father. EX: children are more likely to get autism if inherited from mother.
explain the operation of dominant inheritance, recessive inheritance, incomplete dominance, sex-linked inheritance, and mutations in transmission of birth defects?
dominant inheritance: receiving one dominant and one recessive allele or two dominant alleles.
recessive inheritance: receiving two recessive alleles.
incomplete dominance: being a heterozygote and expressing both traits physically.
sex-linked inheritance: receiving a bad X from mother and then a Y from father can result in disease for son or a carrier for daughter.
mutations: changing of a gene on a chromosome
tell three ways chromosomal disorders occur?
-mutations in chromosomes
explain the purpose of genetic counseling?
being able to test for any risk factors or disorders that your child can inherit before getting pregnant.
state the basic assumption underlying studies of behavioral genetic and how it applies to family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies?
studying whether the way we develop is based on genes alone, environment alone, or a mixture of both.
family studies: how different genes can influence development
twin studies: how same genes with similar environments can effect development
adoption studies: seeing if same genes but different environments effect development
explain and give at least one example of reaction range or norm of reaction, canalization, and genotype-environment reaction?
reaction range: certain traits can develop within a certain range. EX: height. there is a broad range the child can grow to depending on genetics and his lifestyle choices.
canalization: having a very narrow range for development. EX: eye color is very highly canalized, because the chances of offspring having eye color that is not their parents is very very small.
genotype-environment reaction: the influence of the environment based on the genes you carry and express. EX: kid born with musical talent will be influenced by parents (environment) to take lessons and continuing practicing.
difference between the three types of genotype-environment correlation?
passive: child talented musically getting influenced from parents to take music lessons and play piano at his house.
reactive: child not musically talented being influenced by parents to take music lessons.
active: older child, makes decisions for himself to follow what he is good at.
list three kinds of influences that contribute to non-shared environmental factors?
1. being first born and having parents undivided attention.
2. selecting their own activities to partake in.
asses the evidence for genetic and environmental influences on physical and physiological traits, intelligence, temperament, and schizophrenia?
physical traits: depend most on genetics but can be influenced by diet/ exercise.
intelligence: mostly inherited, but as children become older and start niche-picking, it becomes more influenced by environment.
temperament: half heredity, half environment.
schizophrenia: 85% due to heredity but infant insults can play a huge role (injuries to infant while in the womb)
describe how a zygote becomes an embryo, and why defects and miscarriages most often occur during embryonic stage?
a zygote becomes an embryo as it travels down fallopian tube to the uterus and attaches to uterine wall, while dividing a bunch of times.
the sensory organs are developing during embryonic stage, and they have no protection at this time so any damage ca be fatal to fetus.
list several changes that occur during the fetal stage?
sense of smell and taste begin to develop. they can start to move and sense pain. they start to react to mothers voice and start to remember sounds for a months period.
discuss findings about fetal activity, sensory development, and memory?
activity: kicking, turning towards mothers breasts, sucking thumb, somersault
sensory development: they can hear and taste. swallow placental fluid. sense pain.
memory: can remember sounds of mothers voice and music she plays. can last for up to a month.
summarize recommendations for a mothers diet?
fish and foods with omega-3s, high protein, no chocolate or caffeine. no alcohol/drugs.
discuss effects on the developing fetus of a parents' use of medical drugs, alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, marijuana, cocaine, and methampetamine?
medical drugs: can lead to birth defects, withdrawal symptoms
alcohol: fetal alcohol syndrome, mental retardation
tobacco: low birth weight
caffeine: no major affects, but can increase risk of miscarrage
marijuana: wtihdrawal symotoms, can affect frontal lobes
cocaine: spontaneous abortion, delayed growth, premature labor, low birth weight
methamphetamine: low birth weight, fetal brain damage, less white matter.
asses the risks of maternal illness, anxiety, stress, ad advanced age on pregnancy?
maternal illness: can cause birth defects. transferred through placenta, labor, or breast feeding.
anxiety/stress: can cause babies to have anxiety, bad temperament and negative emotionality or behavioral disorders. a little stress promotes brain development.
advanced age: increase risk of miscarriage/still birth. increased risk of down syndrome. (chromosomal abnormalities).
describe seven techniques for identifying effecets or disorders prenatally?
amniocentesis: sample of amniotic fluid - can detect chromosomal disorders, sex-linked disorders
ultrasound: monitors growth, babies heart beat.
maternal blood test: drawing mothers blood can test for defects in brain/spinal cord and predicts down syndrome.
umbilical cord sampling: needle inserted to umbilical cord blood vessels. assessment of blood disorders/infections
embryoscopy: scope inserted to womans abdomen. guides fetal blood transfusions/ bone marrow transplants.
chronic villus sampling: removing tissues from hairlike choironic villi surrounding fetus. early diagnosis for birth defects/disorders.
preimplantaion genetic disorder: sample of cells are removed from blastocyst after in vitro fertilization. can avoid transfusion of genetic defects.
discuss possible reasons for disparities in utilization of prenatal care?
rise in medical care prices and changes in wellfare.
tell why early, high-quality prenatal care is important and why preconception care is needed?
prevent the risk of miscarriage or any birth affects for the baby. prepare the mother for the fetus and make sure the fetus is receiving all proper nutrients.
explain two ways child birth has changed in developed countries and tell why is is less risky than it once was?
child birth is now being done in hospitals rather than homes. safe delivery and less risk for something to go wrong without proper technology to help.
mothers can now receive drugs to make labor more easier, giving mothers higher survival rates.
compare advantages of various settings for childbirth?
home- comfortable for the mother, less expensive
hospital- have proper technology incase something goes wrong, more sanitized and healthier for baby.
describe three stages of vaginal labor?
1. contractions and dilation of the uterus to prepare for labor.
2. child leaves uterus, head first.
3. cutting of umbilical cord and removal of placenta.
discuss the reasons for the sharp increase in C-sections?
rising proportions of older "first time" mothers who tend to have multiple births.
compare medicated delivery w/alternative methods of child birth?
medicated delivery numbs the mother and allows her to be pain free while giving birth.
other methods include learning how to breath, listening to music and calming yourself, and learning how to help your body give birth.
describe the normal size and appearance of a newborn, and list several changes that occur in the first few days?
normal weight 5.5-10 pounds, normal length 18-22 inches. big head, small chin. little hairs on body.
baby loses 10% of body weight in fluids within first few days but then gain the weight back.
compare 5 fetal and neonatal body systems?
respiratory: fetal- breathing with oxygen carried in from the umbilical cord vessels from the mother. neonatal- learning to breath in oxygen and use their lungs.
digestive: fetal- getting nutrients from the umbilical cord. neonatal- getting nutrients from breast feeding, learn how to latch using their mouth.
waste: fetal- using umbilical cord to remove waste. neonatal- peeing / pooping out waste.
circulatory: fetal- oxygen is circulated through mothers umbilical cords. neonatal- create their own oxygen.
temperature: fetal- regulated by mother. neonatal- have layer of fat that can keep heat in, can also increase activity to inceaese their own temperature when it drops.
identify two dangerous conditions that can appear soon after birth?
hypoxia / apoxia - lack or little oxygen
jaundice - undeveloped liver
discuss the uses of the apgar scale and the brazelton scale?
apgar: Appearance (color) Pulse (heartbeat) Grimace (reflex) Agility (muscle tone) Respiratory (breathing) - used to determine if baby has enough oxygen. tested when born and five minutes after.
brazelton: tested at 2 months, tests for behavoral and neurological test against environment.
weigh arguments for/against routine screening for rare disorders?
pros: can save a babies life if diagnosed and take proper care. can save them from being mentally retarted.
explain how states of arousal reflect neurological status, and discuss variations in newborns states?
awake: regular breathing, eyes open
irregular sleep: eyes closed, rapid movement, irregular breathing
drowsy: eyes open or closed, irregular breahting
waking: eyes open, irregular breathing
regular sleep: eyed closed, regular breathing
tell how sleep patterns change, and how cultural practices affect these patterns?
babies usually sleep 18 hours with breaks to eat. as they grow older they require less sleep in long periods, but take naps throughout the day and sleep during the night. americans try to schedule feeding time right before sleep. some cultures don't care about an infants sleep schedule.
name three protective factors identified by the kauai study?
1. individual attributes - energy, sociability
2. affectionate ties with one family member
3. rewards at school or work giving a sense of meaning.
discuss the risk factors, treatment, and outcomes for low-birth weight babies?
risk factors: smoking mothers, not eating enough, using alcohol or drugs, stressed mothers, age, race.
treatment: isolette. feeding through veins
outcomes: delayed growth, inhibited development cognitively, behaviorally, socially.
explain the risks attending post-maturity?
brain damage or death
discuss trends and risk factors for still birth?
risk factors: drugs/alcohol, stress, not enough nutrients, injuries to mother, # of babies. race. boys are more likely than girls. use of reproductive technologies.
summarize trends in infant mortality and injury deaths, an give reasons for racial/ethnical disparities?
infant mortality has decreased. most common forms are suffocation, traffic accidents, and then burns/drowning. boys are more likely to die than girls. blacks are 2x more likely to die and 3x more likely to die of homicide. race disparities include gangs, bafd neighborhoods and economic status.
discuss the risk factors for causes of, and prevention of sudden infant death syndrome?
respiratory problems, low birth weight, problems with the heart, laying a child on their stomach, laying a child in blankets or soft material.
prevention: keep a fan in the room, lay baby on back on flat surface with no blankets.
explain why full immunization of all infants and preschoolers is important?
immunization can help build up immune system and also protect children from illness/dying of certain diseases.
summarize typical patterns of physical growth and change during the first 3 years?
weight triples. average two year old is about 3 feet. head becomes more proportional. teeth grow in. body slims and lengthens.
identify factors that affect growth?
diet, sanitation, medical care, decreased child labor
summarize pediatric recommendations regarding early feeding and the introduction of cow milk, solid foods, and fruit juices?
baby should not eat or drink anything other than breast milk for the first 6 months.
discuss the dangers of early malnutrition?
delayed development, stunted growth
site factors that contribute to obesity later in life?
genetics, having obese parents, diet, exercise, childrens age
describe early brain development?
as the baby grows, more neurons are created and more pathways are used. pathways that are not used are destroyed. pathways become myelinated to increase speed.
explain the functions of the reflex behaviors and why some drop out?
innate responses. some drop out because as our motor senses and brain further develop, we do not need reflexes.
discuss how early experience can affect brain growth and development both positively and negatively?
stimulation of toys, colors, books, etc stimulate neurons in the brain and increase brain development EX: improvement of brain function in adopted kids from foster home
laying in a crib all day with no sounds or colors to look at does not signal neurons and they become destroyed and brain development haults.
give evidence for early development of the senses?
touch/pain: babies try to suck if their cheek is touched
smell: babies are attracted to the smell of mothers milk
taste: babies like things that are sweet, like their mothers milk
hearing: babies are familiar and recognize sounds they heard in the womb like mothers voice
sight: last to develop fully, blink at bright light
tell how breast feeding plays a part in the development of smell and taste?
babies recognize the smell of their mothers milk and like the taste of sweet things which encourages breast feeding
list three ways in which new borns vision is impaired?
1. optic nerve not fully developed
2. retinas not developed fully
3. do not have depth perception
trace a typical infants progress in head control, hand control, and locomotion according to the denver norms?
head control: can slowly start to pick up ther head and holding it up
hand control: being able to hold things in their hands, then grasp it, then use pincer fingers
locomotion: crawling, standing, walking, jumping. going up the stairs one step at a time
discuss how maturation, perception, and cultural influences relate to early motor development?
these can all increase or decrease early motor development.
compare the gibsons ecological theory of perception and thelens dynamic systems theory
GIbson: babies learn certain things like perception when learning how to crawl, but have to relearn this idea when learning how to walk.
thelens: environment can influence whether certain behaviors show or not. baby can do stepping motions that disappear and then come back possibly due to weight.
compare six important approaches to the study of cognitive development and identify their goals?
behavioral: mechanisms (conditioning)
piaget: development based on steps.
information- processing: ways information is processed/used
cognitive-neuroscience: brain structures associated with cognition
social-contextual: effects of the environment
psychometric: quantitative ways of measuring intelligence
give examples of classical and operant conditioning and discuss what operant conditioning studies have found about infant memory?
classical: taking a picture of a baby, and she blinks at the flash. eventually she will blink just by seeing the camera.
operant: a baby babbles, parents reward her with smiles, the baby will learn to babble more. a baby throws food, parents talk in mad tone, she will learn not to throw food.
tell why developmental tests are sometimes given to infants and toddlers?
to make sure they are on the right track compared to the average toddlers.
identify aspects of early home environment that may influence cognitive development?
# of books, toys to play with, if the parents play/interact with the child, if the child has room to play and wander, if they are read to.
discuss the value of early intervention?
can help speed up he development process. can do really well in school and on tests later in life. offsets environmental risks.
summarize major developments during the six substages of sensorimotor stage?
1. developing reflexes and sucking at anything that touches the babies cheek.
2. primary circular reaction: repeating an action because the baby gets joy out of it.
3. secondary circular reaction: getting a reaction out of someone else, baby repeats action to receive reaction again.
4. coordination of secondary schemes: incorporating previously learned schemes with new behaviors
5. tertiary circular reaction: when an action produces an outcome, trying a different action to obtain the same outcome.
6. mental combination: can think actions through before acting upon them.
explain how primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reaction works?
primary circular reaction: sucking thumb and getting joy from it, continues to suck thumb.
secondary circular reaction: babbling and parents reward baby, keep babbling.
tertiary circular reaction: stepping on a duck and it quacks, picking up duck and squeezing it to obtain the same outcome.
tell why the development of representational ability is important?
so that a baby can think actions through before acting them out. higher understanding and mental ability to represent objects and pictures in memory.
explain why piaget may have underestimated some of the infants' cognitive abilities, and discuss the implications of more recent research?
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