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Chapter 22 -The Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation

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Right Subclavian Right Carotid
Two arteries formed by the division of the brachiocephalic trunk.
Coronary Arteries
First branches off the ascending aorta: serve the heart.
Inernal Carotid and Vertebral Arteries
Two paired arteries, serving the brain.
Aorta
Largest artery of the human body.
Deep Femoral
Artery that serves the posterior thigh
Phrenic
Artery that supplies the diaphragm.
Brachial
Artery that splits to form the radial and ulnar arteries.
Inferior Mesenteric
Artery that supplies the last half of the large intestine.
Brachial
Artery generally auscultated to determine blood pressure in the arm.
Internal Illiac
Artery that serves the pelvis.
Femoral
External iliac becomes this artery on entering the thigh.
Brachial
Major artery serving the arm.
Superior Mesenteric
Artery that supplies most of the small intestine.
Common Illiac Arteries
Terminal branches of the descending aorta.
Ciliac Trunk
Arterial trunk that has 3 major branches serving the liver, stomach, spleen.
External Carotid
Major artery, serving the tissues external to the skull.
Posterior Tibial, Anterior Tibial, Peronial
Three arteries, serving the leg inferior to the knee.
Radial
Artery generally used to feel the pulse at the wrist.
Aorta
Damage to the left semilunar valve would interfere with blood flow in this artery.
Brachiocephalic Trunk, left Common Carotid, left Subclavian
First, second and third branches of the aortic arch.
Femoral
Major artery supplying the lower limb.
Axillary
An intermediary between the subclavian and brachial arteries.
Pulmonary Arteries
Brings deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Ascending, Aortic Arch, Descending
Parts of the aorta.
Radial, Ulnar
Branches of the brachial artery.
Bronchial
Visceral branches of the thoracic aorta that supply the visceral pleura, esophagus and bronchi of the lungs.
Internal Carotid
Compressing this artery next to the mandible can cause loss of consciousness.
Left
Which common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch?
Vertebral Artery
Travels through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae.
Common Carotid
Divides into external and internal branches at the level of Adam's apple.
Popliteal Artery
An artery getting its name from the popliteal fossa at the rear of the knee.
Pericardial Phrenic
A branch of the subclavian artery that issues finer branches to the pericardium.
intercostal arteries
33. Anterior and posterior _______________supply the muscles between the ribs.
Superficial Temporal
You can palpate the pulse on this vessel, immediately laterally to the eyebrow.
Gonadal Arteries
Generic name for the ovarian arteries in females and testicular arteries in males.
Femoral
The pulse can be palpated on this artery in the femoral triangle of upper medial thigh.
Internal Carotid Artery
Supplies 80% of the brain.
Radial and Ulnar
Arteries supplying the forearm muscles and the fingers.
Aorta. Explanation: A narrowing of the Aorta at different levels of the Aorta causing changes in blood pressure.
39. A congenital cardio-vascular anomaly (frequency 1 in 2000 autopsies), 4-5 times more frequent in males is called the coarctation of the ______________. Explain this condition.
The cardiovascular system
THE CIRCULATION OF BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE BODY
intima, media and adventiva
What are the layers of a blood vessel for both arteries and veins?
intima
the inner most layer of a blood vessel; including the endothelial lining of the vessel and an underlying layer of connective tissue that contains elastic fibers (THE ELASTIC MEMBRANE IS ONLY IN ARTERIES)
media
The middle layer of a blood vessel; including sheets of smooth muscle tissue. In arteries you will find thin bands of elastic fibers and on the outer edge of the media you will find an external elastic membrane
adventitia
the outermost layer of a blood vessel; composed mainly of collagen fibers.
>In arteries you will find scattered bands of elastic fibers
>this layer is usually thicker in veins
1. Walls of arteries are thicker than those of veins.
>The media of artery contains MORE smooth muscle and elastic fibers than does that of a vein.

2. Arterial walls contract. for this reason they may appear smaller, this is because they hold there shape better than veins. they are thick and strong. veins, when cut tend to collapse where as arteries hold there shape.

3. the endothelial wall of arteries does not contract which gives it a pleated/folded look.
What are three differences in veins and arteries?
1. ELASTIC
2. MUSCULAR
3. ARTERIOLES
What are three types of arteries?
Elastic arteries (conducting arteries)
--Large vessels (e.g., pulmonary trunk and aorta)
--Tunica media has many elastic fibers and few muscle cells
--Elasticity evens out pulse force
--transport large volumes of blood away from the heart.
Muscular arteries (distribution arteries)
--Are medium-sized (most arteries)
--Tunica media has many muscle cells
--Transport blood to the body's skeletal muscle and internal organs.
--Greater density of smooth muscle within the media than elastic arteries.
Arterioles
--Are small
--Have little or no tunica externa
--Have thin or incomplete tunica media
--they control the blood flow between arteries and capillaries.
--is poorly defined and the media consists of scattered smooth muscle fibers that may not form a complete layer.
Capillaries
The smallest and most delicate blood vessels; permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids
capillary structure
a typical capillary consists of an endothelial tube with nucleus enclosed within a delicate basal lamina
1. Continuous capillaries
2. Fenestrated capillaries
3. Sinusoids
What are three types of capillaries?
Continuous capillaries
--Found in most regions of the body
--the endothelium is a complete lining
--the endothelial cells are connected by tight junctions and desmosomes more fitted
Fenestrated capillaries
--found in endocrine organs (glands), filtration sites of kidneys and in the choroid plexus
--they have a "swiss cheese" appearance.
--they contain pores in there walls due to an incomplete/perforated endothelial lining.
Sinusoids
--resemble fenestrated capillaries, BUT they have larger pores and a thinner basal lamina. *in some organs they have no basal lamina* --they follow the internal contours of complex organs. The liver, bone marrow and suprarenal glands.
Capillary Beds
The exchange; this is where anterioles (arteries) and venules (veins) come together through capillary beds!
Precapillary Sphinters
--a band of smooth muscle that guards the entrance to every capillary.
--control by reducing or stopping the blood flow that travels through capillaries.
--they dilate with an increase in carbon dioxide
--they contract with a decrease of carbon dioxide indicating the need for oxygen and nutrients.
metarterioles
intermediate between anterioles and thoroughfare channel
thoroughfare channel
the rest of the passage way that resembles a typical passage way
capillary autoregulation
the automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its needs, and is controlled intrinsically by modifying the diameter of local arterioles and sphincters
arteriovenous anastomoses
direct connections between arterioles and venules. this is helpful within visceral organs and joints when blood supply is lacking going through the capillary bed due to the position of your body.
1. venules (smallest)
2. medium-sized veins
3. large veins
What are three types of veins?
purpose of veins
to collect blood from tall tissues and organs and return it to the heart.

*Note* veins walls are structurally not as strong as there corresponding artery so they may have a greater diameter in different regions.
VENULE
the smallest venules lack a media. However, in the largest venules you will find scattered smooth muscle cells
MEDIUM-SIZED VEINS
contain a thin media and the thickest layer is the adventitia which contains longitudinal bundles of elastic and collagen fibers
LARGE VEINS
*Ex. superior and inferior venae cavae* all of the layers are thickest in large veins. Still a slender media which is surrounded by a thick adventitia, mix of elastic and collagenous fibers
There really isn't a huge difference between the different types of veins
venous valves
infoldings of the intima layer. they prevent the back flow of blood. explanation: venous valves break the blood flow back to the heart into compartments so to speak, and contractions in the surrounding skeletal muscles help to squeeze the blood towards the heart
total blood volume
this is the distribution of blood among the arteries, veins, heart..etc.
venoconstriciton
when smooth muscles in the walls of venous veins contract reducing the volume of the venous system
blood reservoir
the venous system acts as a blood reservoir for when the body is undergoing blood loss and can help to maintain the volume within the arterial system at near-normal levels despite a significant blood loss. (liver acting as primary reservoir)
venous reserve
the change in volume
At this point attempt to do the concept check questions on the bottom right of page 577! (in the study guide)
...
Blood vessel distribution is broken into...
1. PULMONARY CIRCUIT
2. SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
PULMONARY CIRCUIT
composed of arteries and veins that transport blood between the heart and the lungs.
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
transports oxygenated blood between the heart and all other tissues.
There are 3 important functional patterns of the pulmonary and systemic circuit...
1. the peripheral distribution of arteries and veins on the left and right sides is usually identical except near the heart, where the largest vessels connect to the atria or ventricles

2. A single vessel may have several different names as it crosses specific anatomical boundaries, making accurate anatomical descriptions possible when the vessel extends far into the periphery.

3. Arteries and veins often make anastomotic connections that reduce the impact of a temporary or even permanent blockage of a single vessel
Two arteries formed by the division of the brachiocephalic trunk
subclavian and common carotid
First artery that branches of the ascending aorta; serves the heart
coronary artery
two paired arteries, serving the brain
internal carotid and vertebral
largest artery of the body
aorta
arterial network on the dorsum of the foot
dorsalis pedis
artery that serves the posterior thigh
deep artery of the thigh
artery that supplies the diaphragm
phrenic
artery that splits to form the radial and ulnar arteries
brachial
artery that supplies the last half of the large intestine
inferior mesenteric
artery that serves the pelvis
common iliac
external iliac becomes this artery on entering the thigh
femoral
Major artery serving the arm
brachial
artery that supplies most of the small intestine
superior mesentric
the terminal branches of the dorsal, or descending aorta
right and left common iliac
arterial trunk that has three major branches, which serve the liver, spleen, and stomach
celiac trunk
mahor artery, serving the tissues external to the skull
external carotid
artery general auscultated to determine blood pressure in the arm
brachial
these were not all of the arteries that need to be known but most of them (: refer to the in class ws for the rest.
THE FOLLOWING SLIDES 59
deep veins, draining the forearm
ulnar and radial
veins that receive blodd from the arm via the axillary vein
subclavian
veins that drain venous blood from the myocardium of the heart into the coronary sinus
cardiac
vein that drains the kidney
renal
vein that drains the dural sinuses of the brain
internal jugular
two veins that join to become the superior vena cava
right and left brachiocephalic
veins that drain the leg and foot
femoral and posterior tibial
large vein that carries nutrient rich blood from the digestive organs to the liver for processing
hepatic portal
superficial vein that drains the lateral aspect of the arm
cephalic
vein that drains the ovaries and testes
gonadal
vein that drains the thorax, empties into the superior vena cava
azygos vein
largest vein below the thorax
inferior vena cava
...
Know all the major arteries in the body
Vertebral artery
Identify A: _______ artery
Right subclavian
Identify B: _______ artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Identify C: _______ artery
Aortic arch
Identify D:_______ artery
Ascending aorta
Identify E:_______ artery
Celiac trunk
Identify F: _______ artery
Brachial
Identify G: _______ artery
Radial
Identify H:_______ artery
Ulnar
Identify I:_______ artery
External iliac
Identify J:_______ artery
Palmar arches
Identify K:_______ artery
Popliteal
Identify L:_______ artery
Posterior tibial
Identify M: _______ artery
Anterior tibial
Identify N: _______ artery
Fibular
Identify O: _______ artery
Plantar arch
Identify P: _______ artery
Dorsalis pedis
Identify Q: _______ artery
Descending genicular
Identify R:_______ artery
Femoral
Identify S: _______ artery
Deep femoral
Identify T: _______ artery
Internal iliac
Identify U: _______ artery
Common iliac
Identify V: _______ artery
Inferior mesenteric
Identify W: _______ artery
Gonadal
Identify X: _______ artery
Superior mesenteric
Identify Y: _______ artery
Renal
Identify Z: _______ artery
Diaphragm
Identify AA: _______ artery
Descending aorta
Identify BB: _______ artery
Pulmonary trunk
Identify CC: _______ artery
Axillary
Identify DD: _______ artery
Left subclavian
Identify EE: _______ artery
Left common carotid
Identify FF: _______ artery
Right common carotid
Identify GG: _______ artery
Systemic Venous System
Be able to identify the major veins in the body.
Vertebral
Identify A: _______ vein
External jugular
Identify B: _______ vein
Subclavian
Identify C: _______ vein
Axillary
Identify D: _______ vein
Cephalic
Identify E: _______ vein
Brachial
Identify F: _______ vein
Basilic
Identify G: _______ vein
Hepatic
Identify H: _______ vein
Median cubital
Identify I: _______ vein
Radial
Identify J: _______ vein
Median antebrachial
Identify K: _______ vein
Ulnar
Identify L: _______ vein
Palmar venous arches
Identify M: _______ vein
Digital
Identify N: _______ vein
Great saphenous
Identify O: _______ vein
Popliteal
Identify P: _______ vein
Small saphenous
Identify Q: _______ vein
Fibular
Identify R: _______ vein
Dorsal venous arch
Identify S: _______ vein
Plantar venous arch
Identify T: _______ vein
Anterior tibial
Identify U: _______ vein
Posterior tibial
Identify V: _______ vein
Femoral
Identify W: _______ vein
Deep femoral
Identify X: _______ vein
Internal iliac
Identify Y: _______ vein
External iliac
Identify Z: _______ vein
Left and right common iliac
Identify AA: _______ vein
Lumbar
Identify BB: _______ vein
Gonadal
Identify CC: _______ vein
Renal
Identify DD: _______ vein
Inferior vena cava
Identify EE: _______ vein
Intercostal
Identify FF: _______ vein
Superior vena cava
Identify GG: _______ vein
Brachiocephalic
Identify HH: _______ vein
Internal jugular
Identify II: _______ vein
Distribution of Blood in the Cardiovascular System
Blood Distribution: heart, arteries, capillaries
30-35% of blood volume
Blood Distribution: venous system
65-70% of blood volume
venoconstriction
a decrease in peripheral vein diameter
blood reservoir
liver acts as the primary reservoir
venous reserve
The increase in effective blood volume that results from venoconstriction
Examination of a section of tissue shows several small, thin-walled vessels with very little smooth muscle tissue in the media. What type of vessels are these?
The blood vessels are veins. Arteries and arterioles have a relatively large amount of smooth muscle tissue in a thick, well-developed tuncia media.
Why are valves found in veins but not in arteries?
Blood pressure in the arterial system pushes blood into the capillaries. Blood pressure on the venous side is very low, and other forces help keep the blood moving. Valves in the walls of venules and medium-sized veins permit blood flow in only one direction, toward the heart, preventing the back flow of the blood toward the capillaries.
The femoral artery is an example of which type of artery?
The femoral artery is a muscular artery.
Does gas exchange occur between the blood and its surrounding tissues in arterioles?
No gas exchange occurs in arterioles.
Overview of General Pattern of Circulation
Three important functional patterns of pulmonary and systemic circuits
I believe in YOU.
First Functional Pattern
There peripheral distribution of arteries and veins on the left and right sides is usually identical except near the heart, where the largest vessels connect to the atria or ventricles.
Second Function Pattern
A single vessel may have several different names as it crosses specific anatomical boundaries, making accurate anatomical descriptions possible when the vessel extends far into the periphery.
Third Functional Pattern
Arteries and veins often make anastomotic connections that reduce the impact of a temporary or even permanent occlusion (blockage) of a single vessel.
What regions of the body receive their blood from the carotid arteries?
The carotid arteries supply blood to the structures of the head and the neck, including the brain
Which artery is found at the biceps region of the right arm?
The right brachial artery is the artery at the biceps region
What artery does the external iliac artery become after leaving the abdominal cavity?
The external iliac artery gives rise to the femoral artery in the thigh
Would damage to the internal carotid arteries always result in brain damage? Why or why not?
Damage to the internal carotid arteries would not always result in brain damage because the vertebral arteries also supply blood to the brain
Diane is in an automobile accident and ruptures her celiac artery. What organs would be affected most directly by this injury?
Organs served by the celiac artery include the stomach, spleen, liver, and pancreas.
2. It is 110 degrees outside and you are very hot. What changes have occurred in your veins and why?
The superficial veins are dilated to promote heat loss through the skin
Which major vein receives the blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and upper limbs?
The superior vena cava receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders and upper limbs
Why does blood leaving the intestines first go to the liver?
Blood from the intestines contain high amounts of glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients and toxins absorbed from the digestive tract. These are processed by the liver before the blood goes to the general systemic circuit in order to keep the composition of the blood in the body relatively stable.
Read about significant differences between arterial and venous systems (Page 592 paragraphs 2,3,4)
-one significant difference between arterial and venous systems concerns the distribution of major veins in the neck and limbs
-arteries in these areas are not found at body surface, they are deep and protected by bones
-in contrast, neck and limb have two sets of peripheral veins, one superficial and one deep
-superficial veins are so close to surface they are easy targets for obtaining blood samples
-most blood tests are performed on venous blood collected from superficial veins of upper limb (usually antecubital surface)
How does this dual venous drainage play an important role in control of body temperature?
-when body temp. becomes abnormally low, the arterial blood supply to the skin is reduced and the superficial veins are bypassed
-blood enters the limbs and returns to the trunk in the deep veins
-when overheating occurs, the blood supply to the skin increases and the superficial veins dilate
-this is one reason why superficial veins in the arms/legs become prominent during periods of heavy exercise
-
Branching pattern of peripheral veins vs arteries
-branching pattern of peripheral veins is more variable than that of arteries
-arterial pathways are usually direct because developing arteries grow toward active tissues
-by the time blood reaches the venous system, pressures are low and routing variations make little functional difference
Arteriovenous Anastomoses
-Direct connections between arterioles and venules
-Common in visceral organs and joints where changes in body position could hinder blood flow through one vessel to another
Arteriovenous Anastomoses
Identify A
Types of Veins
Venules
Medium-sized
Large
Venules
-Smallest veins, collect blood from capillaries
-Media of the very largest venules contains smooth muscle cells
-Collect blood from capillaries
Middle-Sized Vein
-Thin tunica media and few smooth muscle cells
-Tunica adventitia with longitudinal bundles of elastic fibers
Large Veins
-Ex: Superior & Inferior Vena Cava
-Have all 3 tunica layers
-Thick tunica adventitia
-Thin tunica media