Brachiocephalic Trunk, left Common Carotid, left Subclavian
First, second and third branches of the aortic arch.
Visceral branches of the thoracic aorta that supply the visceral pleura, esophagus and bronchi of the lungs.
A branch of the subclavian artery that issues finer branches to the pericardium.
33. Anterior and posterior _______________supply the muscles between the ribs.
You can palpate the pulse on this vessel, immediately laterally to the eyebrow.
Generic name for the ovarian arteries in females and testicular arteries in males.
Aorta. Explanation: A narrowing of the Aorta at different levels of the Aorta causing changes in blood pressure.
39. A congenital cardio-vascular anomaly (frequency 1 in 2000 autopsies), 4-5 times more frequent in males is called the coarctation of the ______________. Explain this condition.
the inner most layer of a blood vessel; including the endothelial lining of the vessel and an underlying layer of connective tissue that contains elastic fibers (THE ELASTIC MEMBRANE IS ONLY IN ARTERIES)
The middle layer of a blood vessel; including sheets of smooth muscle tissue. In arteries you will find thin bands of elastic fibers and on the outer edge of the media you will find an external elastic membrane
the outermost layer of a blood vessel; composed mainly of collagen fibers.
>In arteries you will find scattered bands of elastic fibers
>this layer is usually thicker in veins
1. Walls of arteries are thicker than those of veins.
>The media of artery contains MORE smooth muscle and elastic fibers than does that of a vein.
2. Arterial walls contract. for this reason they may appear smaller, this is because they hold there shape better than veins. they are thick and strong. veins, when cut tend to collapse where as arteries hold there shape.
3. the endothelial wall of arteries does not contract which gives it a pleated/folded look.
What are three differences in veins and arteries?
Elastic arteries (conducting arteries)
--Large vessels (e.g., pulmonary trunk and aorta)
--Tunica media has many elastic fibers and few muscle cells
--Elasticity evens out pulse force
--transport large volumes of blood away from the heart.
Muscular arteries (distribution arteries)
--Are medium-sized (most arteries)
--Tunica media has many muscle cells
--Transport blood to the body's skeletal muscle and internal organs.
--Greater density of smooth muscle within the media than elastic arteries.
--Have little or no tunica externa
--Have thin or incomplete tunica media
--they control the blood flow between arteries and capillaries.
--is poorly defined and the media consists of scattered smooth muscle fibers that may not form a complete layer.
The smallest and most delicate blood vessels; permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids
a typical capillary consists of an endothelial tube with nucleus enclosed within a delicate basal lamina
1. Continuous capillaries
2. Fenestrated capillaries
What are three types of capillaries?
--Found in most regions of the body
--the endothelium is a complete lining
--the endothelial cells are connected by tight junctions and desmosomes more fitted
--found in endocrine organs (glands), filtration sites of kidneys and in the choroid plexus
--they have a "swiss cheese" appearance.
--they contain pores in there walls due to an incomplete/perforated endothelial lining.
--resemble fenestrated capillaries, BUT they have larger pores and a thinner basal lamina. *in some organs they have no basal lamina* --they follow the internal contours of complex organs. The liver, bone marrow and suprarenal glands.
The exchange; this is where anterioles (arteries) and venules (veins) come together through capillary beds!
--a band of smooth muscle that guards the entrance to every capillary.
--control by reducing or stopping the blood flow that travels through capillaries.
--they dilate with an increase in carbon dioxide
--they contract with a decrease of carbon dioxide indicating the need for oxygen and nutrients.
the automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its needs, and is controlled intrinsically by modifying the diameter of local arterioles and sphincters
direct connections between arterioles and venules. this is helpful within visceral organs and joints when blood supply is lacking going through the capillary bed due to the position of your body.
purpose of veins
to collect blood from tall tissues and organs and return it to the heart.
*Note* veins walls are structurally not as strong as there corresponding artery so they may have a greater diameter in different regions.
the smallest venules lack a media. However, in the largest venules you will find scattered smooth muscle cells
contain a thin media and the thickest layer is the adventitia which contains longitudinal bundles of elastic and collagen fibers
*Ex. superior and inferior venae cavae* all of the layers are thickest in large veins. Still a slender media which is surrounded by a thick adventitia, mix of elastic and collagenous fibers
infoldings of the intima layer. they prevent the back flow of blood. explanation: venous valves break the blood flow back to the heart into compartments so to speak, and contractions in the surrounding skeletal muscles help to squeeze the blood towards the heart
when smooth muscles in the walls of venous veins contract reducing the volume of the venous system
the venous system acts as a blood reservoir for when the body is undergoing blood loss and can help to maintain the volume within the arterial system at near-normal levels despite a significant blood loss. (liver acting as primary reservoir)
At this point attempt to do the concept check questions on the bottom right of page 577! (in the study guide)
composed of arteries and veins that transport blood between the heart and the lungs.
There are 3 important functional patterns of the pulmonary and systemic circuit...
1. the peripheral distribution of arteries and veins on the left and right sides is usually identical except near the heart, where the largest vessels connect to the atria or ventricles
2. A single vessel may have several different names as it crosses specific anatomical boundaries, making accurate anatomical descriptions possible when the vessel extends far into the periphery.
3. Arteries and veins often make anastomotic connections that reduce the impact of a temporary or even permanent blockage of a single vessel
arterial trunk that has three major branches, which serve the liver, spleen, and stomach
these were not all of the arteries that need to be known but most of them (: refer to the in class ws for the rest.
THE FOLLOWING SLIDES 59
large vein that carries nutrient rich blood from the digestive organs to the liver for processing
Examination of a section of tissue shows several small, thin-walled vessels with very little smooth muscle tissue in the media. What type of vessels are these?
The blood vessels are veins. Arteries and arterioles have a relatively large amount of smooth muscle tissue in a thick, well-developed tuncia media.
Why are valves found in veins but not in arteries?
Blood pressure in the arterial system pushes blood into the capillaries. Blood pressure on the venous side is very low, and other forces help keep the blood moving. Valves in the walls of venules and medium-sized veins permit blood flow in only one direction, toward the heart, preventing the back flow of the blood toward the capillaries.
The femoral artery is an example of which type of artery?
The femoral artery is a muscular artery.
Does gas exchange occur between the blood and its surrounding tissues in arterioles?
No gas exchange occurs in arterioles.
First Functional Pattern
There peripheral distribution of arteries and veins on the left and right sides is usually identical except near the heart, where the largest vessels connect to the atria or ventricles.
Second Function Pattern
A single vessel may have several different names as it crosses specific anatomical boundaries, making accurate anatomical descriptions possible when the vessel extends far into the periphery.
Third Functional Pattern
Arteries and veins often make anastomotic connections that reduce the impact of a temporary or even permanent occlusion (blockage) of a single vessel.
What regions of the body receive their blood from the carotid arteries?
The carotid arteries supply blood to the structures of the head and the neck, including the brain
Which artery is found at the biceps region of the right arm?
The right brachial artery is the artery at the biceps region
What artery does the external iliac artery become after leaving the abdominal cavity?
The external iliac artery gives rise to the femoral artery in the thigh
Would damage to the internal carotid arteries always result in brain damage? Why or why not?
Damage to the internal carotid arteries would not always result in brain damage because the vertebral arteries also supply blood to the brain
Diane is in an automobile accident and ruptures her celiac artery. What organs would be affected most directly by this injury?
Organs served by the celiac artery include the stomach, spleen, liver, and pancreas.
2. It is 110 degrees outside and you are very hot. What changes have occurred in your veins and why?
The superficial veins are dilated to promote heat loss through the skin
Which major vein receives the blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and upper limbs?
The superior vena cava receives blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders and upper limbs
Why does blood leaving the intestines first go to the liver?
Blood from the intestines contain high amounts of glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients and toxins absorbed from the digestive tract. These are processed by the liver before the blood goes to the general systemic circuit in order to keep the composition of the blood in the body relatively stable.
Read about significant differences between arterial and venous systems (Page 592 paragraphs 2,3,4)
-one significant difference between arterial and venous systems concerns the distribution of major veins in the neck and limbs
-arteries in these areas are not found at body surface, they are deep and protected by bones
-in contrast, neck and limb have two sets of peripheral veins, one superficial and one deep
-superficial veins are so close to surface they are easy targets for obtaining blood samples
-most blood tests are performed on venous blood collected from superficial veins of upper limb (usually antecubital surface)
How does this dual venous drainage play an important role in control of body temperature?
-when body temp. becomes abnormally low, the arterial blood supply to the skin is reduced and the superficial veins are bypassed
-blood enters the limbs and returns to the trunk in the deep veins
-when overheating occurs, the blood supply to the skin increases and the superficial veins dilate
-this is one reason why superficial veins in the arms/legs become prominent during periods of heavy exercise
Branching pattern of peripheral veins vs arteries
-branching pattern of peripheral veins is more variable than that of arteries
-arterial pathways are usually direct because developing arteries grow toward active tissues
-by the time blood reaches the venous system, pressures are low and routing variations make little functional difference
-Direct connections between arterioles and venules
-Common in visceral organs and joints where changes in body position could hinder blood flow through one vessel to another
-Smallest veins, collect blood from capillaries
-Media of the very largest venules contains smooth muscle cells
-Collect blood from capillaries
-Thin tunica media and few smooth muscle cells
-Tunica adventitia with longitudinal bundles of elastic fibers