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The process of getting information out of memory is called


Which of the following is the best definition of the modern memory model "connectionism?"

the view that memory emerges from interconnected neural networks

Some information in our fleeting __________ is encoded into short-term memory.

sensory memory

Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called __________ memory.


The integration of new incoming information with the knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of

working memory

How does the brains capacity for parallel processing relate to encoding new memories?

parallel processing allows many sensory experiences to be encoded all at once, some automatically, some with effort

During the course of the day, people may unconsciously encode the sequence of the days events. This best illustrates

automatic processing

You are most likely to automatically encode information about

the sequence of your days events

Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to


When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the persons name by repeating it to himself several times. Marcel makes use of a strategy called


Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes everyday for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as

spacing effect

Which of the following is the best example of the testing effect?

repeated quizzing of the information increases the chances that it will be recalled

On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items...

in the middle of the list

The tendency to immediately recall the first in last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the

serial position

Proactive and retroactive interference contribute most strongly to the

serial position effect

Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates

a recency effect

The statement, "The haystack was important because the cloth ripped," becomes easier to understand and recall when you are given the following prompt: "A parachutist." This best illustrates the influence of

semantic encoding

Most people miscall the sentence, "The angry rioter threw the rock at the window" was "The angry rioter threw the rock through the window." This best illustrates the importance of

semantic encoding

Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen the word on todays test?

how well does the word describe you?

Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as __________ is to __________.

meaning, imagery

One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires

semantic encoding

Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of

acoustic encoding

Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively rememberer seeing specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of

semantic encoding

When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of

semantic encoding

A mnemonic device is

memory aid

Mnemonic devices such as the peg-word system make effective use of

visual imagery

The organization of information into meaningful units is called


Using the mnemonic ROY G BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength illustrates the use of

an acronym

The address for obtaining tickets to a polar quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates __________ memory.


Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to __________ memory.


When Sterling visually displayed three rows of three letters each for only one-twentith of a second, research participants

had a momentary photographic memory of all 9 letters

While your Mom is lecturing you about cleaning your room, you lose concentration. Then, suddenly you hear the significant words, "no car keys." when she asks, "are you listening to me?" you are able to repeat the last few things she said before mentioning car keys. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon?

Words stored in echoic memory will last for 3 to 4 seconds, so you can still recall her words

Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short term memories for three consonants almost completely decay short a time as

12 seconds

After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes to prevent


Short-term memory is slightly better

for auditory information than for visual information

Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited capacity?

long-term memory

The quest for a physical basis of memory involves a search for an

memory trace

Research suggests that a memory traces is most likely to involve

synaptic changes

Research by Kandel and Schwartz on sea slugs indicates that memory formation is associated with the

release of certain neurotransmitters

The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as

long-term potentiation

Long-term potentiation refers to

an increase in a neuron's firing potential

Sea slugs, mice, and fruit flies have displayed enhanced memories following enhanced production of protein


Passing an electric current through brain during electroconvulsive therapy is most likely to disrupt __________ memory.


Exceptionally clear memories of emotionally significant events are called

flashbulb memories

Most Americans still have accurate flashbulb memories of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. The best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by

Bodys release of stress hormones

After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficultly recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from


The ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between

explicit memory and implicit memory

Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure __________; matching concepts with their definitions measures __________


Group 1 is asked to write down the names of the 7 dwarfs. Group 2 is asked to look at a list of possible names of the dwarfs and circle the correct 7. Why might group 2 recall more names?

group 2's list provides more retrieval cues, making this recognition task easier for them

Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as


Shortly after you see a missing-child poster you are more likely to interpret an ambitious adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. This best illustrates the impact of


Walking into your bedroom you think, "I need to get my backpack in the kitchen." When you reach the kitchen, you forget what you came there for. As you return to your bedroom, you suddenly remember, "Backpack!" This sudden recall is best explained by

context effects

After his last drinking spree, Fakim had hid a half empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. Fakims pattern of recall best illustartes

state-dependency memory

The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contributes to

mood-congruent memory

Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful recollections of the rare occasions which he had observed his girlfriend flirting with other men. David's experience best illustrates

mood-congruent memory

In describing what he calls the seven sins of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that encoding failure results from the sin of


The inability to recall which numbers on a telephone dial are not accompanied by letters is most likely do to

encoding failure

In describing what he calls the seven sings of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that storage decay contributes to


To prevent encoding failure you should

engage in effortful processing

Using nonsense syllables to study memory, Hermann Ebbinghaus found that

the most rapid memory loss for new information occurs shortly after it is learned

The title of a song is on the top of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by

retrieval failure

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called

proactive interference

After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of

retroactive interference

Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. John Jenkins and Karl Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when individuals spent time


You took Spanish during your sophomore year, and French during your junior year. Happily, you found that knowing spanish helped you learn French. This phenomenon is best explained by

positive transfer

Which of the following best describes the position of many current researchers regarding repression?

repression rarely occurs as it is difficult to forget emotional material

After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of

the misinformation effect

Visualizing an object and actually seeing that object activate similar brain areas. This more clearly contributes to

imagination inflation

After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remember details from other's traumatic life stories as a part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of

source amnesia

Research on memory construction indicates that

false memories often feel as real as true memories

Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of

memory construction

With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that

adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable

Sigmund Freud emphasized that forgetting painful experiences is caused by a process that involves

retrieval failure

Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates __________ memory.


Explicit memory is to __________ as implicit memory is to __________.

hippocampus, cerebellum

Cerebellum is to __________ memory as hippocampus is to __________ memory.

implicit, explicit

Sounds and words that are not immediately attending to can still be recalled a couple of seconds later because of our __________ memory.


Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates

rosy retrospection

Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of


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