79 terms

Ap psych unit 7A

The process of getting information out of memory is called
Which of the following is the best definition of the modern memory model "connectionism?"
the view that memory emerges from interconnected neural networks
Some information in our fleeting __________ is encoded into short-term memory.
sensory memory
Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called __________ memory.
The integration of new incoming information with the knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
working memory
How does the brains capacity for parallel processing relate to encoding new memories?
parallel processing allows many sensory experiences to be encoded all at once, some automatically, some with effort
During the course of the day, people may unconsciously encode the sequence of the days events. This best illustrates
automatic processing
You are most likely to automatically encode information about
the sequence of your days events
Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to
When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the persons name by repeating it to himself several times. Marcel makes use of a strategy called
Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes everyday for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
spacing effect
Which of the following is the best example of the testing effect?
repeated quizzing of the information increases the chances that it will be recalled
On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items...
in the middle of the list
The tendency to immediately recall the first in last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the
serial position
Proactive and retroactive interference contribute most strongly to the
serial position effect
Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates
a recency effect
The statement, "The haystack was important because the cloth ripped," becomes easier to understand and recall when you are given the following prompt: "A parachutist." This best illustrates the influence of
semantic encoding
Most people miscall the sentence, "The angry rioter threw the rock at the window" was "The angry rioter threw the rock through the window." This best illustrates the importance of
semantic encoding
Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen the word on todays test?
how well does the word describe you?
Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as __________ is to __________.
meaning, imagery
One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires
semantic encoding
Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of
acoustic encoding
Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively rememberer seeing specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of
semantic encoding
When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of
semantic encoding
A mnemonic device is
memory aid
Mnemonic devices such as the peg-word system make effective use of
visual imagery
The organization of information into meaningful units is called
Using the mnemonic ROY G BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength illustrates the use of
an acronym
The address for obtaining tickets to a polar quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates __________ memory.
Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to __________ memory.
When Sterling visually displayed three rows of three letters each for only one-twentith of a second, research participants
had a momentary photographic memory of all 9 letters
While your Mom is lecturing you about cleaning your room, you lose concentration. Then, suddenly you hear the significant words, "no car keys." when she asks, "are you listening to me?" you are able to repeat the last few things she said before mentioning car keys. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon?
Words stored in echoic memory will last for 3 to 4 seconds, so you can still recall her words
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short term memories for three consonants almost completely decay short a time as
12 seconds
After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes to prevent
Short-term memory is slightly better
for auditory information than for visual information
Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited capacity?
long-term memory
The quest for a physical basis of memory involves a search for an
memory trace
Research suggests that a memory traces is most likely to involve
synaptic changes
Research by Kandel and Schwartz on sea slugs indicates that memory formation is associated with the
release of certain neurotransmitters
The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as
long-term potentiation
Long-term potentiation refers to
an increase in a neuron's firing potential
Sea slugs, mice, and fruit flies have displayed enhanced memories following enhanced production of protein
Passing an electric current through brain during electroconvulsive therapy is most likely to disrupt __________ memory.
Exceptionally clear memories of emotionally significant events are called
flashbulb memories
Most Americans still have accurate flashbulb memories of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. The best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by
Bodys release of stress hormones
After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficultly recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from
The ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between
explicit memory and implicit memory
Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure __________; matching concepts with their definitions measures __________
Group 1 is asked to write down the names of the 7 dwarfs. Group 2 is asked to look at a list of possible names of the dwarfs and circle the correct 7. Why might group 2 recall more names?
group 2's list provides more retrieval cues, making this recognition task easier for them
Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as
Shortly after you see a missing-child poster you are more likely to interpret an ambitious adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. This best illustrates the impact of
Walking into your bedroom you think, "I need to get my backpack in the kitchen." When you reach the kitchen, you forget what you came there for. As you return to your bedroom, you suddenly remember, "Backpack!" This sudden recall is best explained by
context effects
After his last drinking spree, Fakim had hid a half empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. Fakims pattern of recall best illustartes
state-dependency memory
The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contributes to
mood-congruent memory
Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful recollections of the rare occasions which he had observed his girlfriend flirting with other men. David's experience best illustrates
mood-congruent memory
In describing what he calls the seven sins of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that encoding failure results from the sin of
The inability to recall which numbers on a telephone dial are not accompanied by letters is most likely do to
encoding failure
In describing what he calls the seven sings of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that storage decay contributes to
To prevent encoding failure you should
engage in effortful processing
Using nonsense syllables to study memory, Hermann Ebbinghaus found that
the most rapid memory loss for new information occurs shortly after it is learned
The title of a song is on the top of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by
retrieval failure
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called
proactive interference
After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of
retroactive interference
Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. John Jenkins and Karl Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when individuals spent time
You took Spanish during your sophomore year, and French during your junior year. Happily, you found that knowing spanish helped you learn French. This phenomenon is best explained by
positive transfer
Which of the following best describes the position of many current researchers regarding repression?
repression rarely occurs as it is difficult to forget emotional material
After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of
the misinformation effect
Visualizing an object and actually seeing that object activate similar brain areas. This more clearly contributes to
imagination inflation
After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remember details from other's traumatic life stories as a part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of
source amnesia
Research on memory construction indicates that
false memories often feel as real as true memories
Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of
memory construction
With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that
adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable
Sigmund Freud emphasized that forgetting painful experiences is caused by a process that involves
retrieval failure
Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates __________ memory.
Explicit memory is to __________ as implicit memory is to __________.
hippocampus, cerebellum
Cerebellum is to __________ memory as hippocampus is to __________ memory.
implicit, explicit
Sounds and words that are not immediately attending to can still be recalled a couple of seconds later because of our __________ memory.
Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates
rosy retrospection
Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of